GPS Solutions

, 22:37 | Cite as

A new evil waveforms evaluating method for new BDS navigation signals

  • Chengyan He
  • Ji Guo
  • Xiaochun Lu
  • Xue Wang
  • Yongnan Rao
  • Li Kang
  • Zhigang Hu
Original Article


With the advent of new global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) and new signals, GNSS users will rely more on them to obtain higher-accuracy positioning. Evil waveform monitoring and assessment are of great importance for GNSS to achieve its positioning, velocity, and timing service with high accuracy. However, the advent of new navigation signals introduces the necessity to extend the traditional analyzing techniques already accepted for binary phase-shift keying modulation to new techniques. First, the well-known second-order step thread model adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization is introduced. Then the extended new general thread models are developed for the new binary offset carrier modulated signals. However, no research has been done on navigation signal waveform symmetry yet. Simulation results showed that, waveform asymmetry may also cause tracking errors, range biases, and position errors in GNSS receivers. It is thus imperative that the asymmetry be quantified to enable the design of appropriate error budgets and mitigation strategies for various application fields. A novel evil waveform analysis method, called waveform rising and falling edge symmetry (WRaFES) method, is proposed. Based on this WRaFES method, the correlation metrics are provided to detect asymmetric correlation peaks distorted by received signal asymmetry. Then the statistical properties of the proposed methods are analyzed, and a proper deformation detection threshold is calculated. Finally, both simulation results and experimentally measured results of Beidou navigation satellite system (BDS) M1-S B1Cd signal are given, which show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed thread models.


GNSS Satellite navigation signal Evil waveform Evaluating Threat model 



Test data for this work were provided by Haoping Radio Observatory (HRO), China. The authors would like to thank the staff in HRO and in Navigation and Communication Laboratory from National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), for their support and data. The authors would like to acknowledge that this effort was sponsored by National Nature Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61501430 and 41604029) and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CN). In particular, the authors would like to thank the editors and reviewers for their constructive comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Precise Navigation, Positioning and TimingChinese Academy of SciencesXi’anChina
  2. 2.National Time Service CenterChinese Academy of SciencesXi’anChina
  3. 3.Graduate University, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.GNSS Research CenterWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  5. 5.School of Astronomy and Space ScienceUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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