GPS Solutions

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 1855–1870 | Cite as

Analysis of Galileo IOV + FOC signals and E5 RTK performance

  • Safoora ZaminpardazEmail author
  • Peter J. G. Teunissen
Original Article


The current Galileo constellation in April 2017 comprises both in-orbit validation and full operational capability satellites transmitting signals on five frequencies, i.e., E1, E5a, E5b, E5, and E6. We analyze the power, multipath and noise of these signals using the data collected by four short baselines of various lengths and receiver/antenna types in Perth, Australia, as well as the Netherlands. In our analysis, the Galileo signals, except E5, show different relative noise and multipath performance for different receiver/antenna types. The E5 signal, with a weak dependency on the type of receiver/antenna, shows a significantly lower level of multipath and noise with respect to the other signals. Estimations of the E5 code standard deviation based on the data of each of the mentioned baselines gives a value of about 6 cm, which is further reduced to about 1 cm once the data are corrected for multipath. Due to the superior stochastic properties of E5 signal compared to the other Galileo signals, we further analyze the short-baseline real-time kinematic performance of the Galileo standalone E5 observations. Our findings confirm that the Galileo E5 data, if corrected for the multipath effect, can make (almost) instantaneous ambiguity resolution feasible already based on the current constellation.


Galileo IOV FOC E5AltBOC Signal power Multipath Noise characteristics Integer ambiguity resolution RTK 



The second author is the recipient of an Australian Research Council (ARC) Federation Fellowship (Project Number FF0883188). The Netherlands data were provided by Mr. Lennard Huisman from Kadaster, the Netherlands. This support is greatly acknowledged. We are also thankful to Dr. Nandakumaran Nadarajah and Dr. Mohammad Choudhury from Curtin University GNSS Research Center, Perth, Australia, for providing the data of UWA0 station.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GNSS Research CentreCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Geoscience and Remote SensingDelftThe Netherlands

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