GPS Solutions

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 439–450 | Cite as

GPS, Galileo, QZSS and IRNSS differential ISBs: estimation and application

  • Dennis OdijkEmail author
  • Nandakumaran Nadarajah
  • Safoora Zaminpardaz
  • Peter J. G. Teunissen
Original Article


Knowledge of inter-system biases (ISBs) is essential to combine observations of multiple global and regional navigation satellite systems (GNSS/RNSS) in an optimal way. Earlier studies based on GPS, Galileo, BDS and QZSS have demonstrated that the performance of multi-GNSS real-time kinematic positioning is improved when the differential ISBs (DISBs) corresponding to signals of different constellations but transmitted at identical frequencies can be calibrated, such that only one common pivot satellite is sufficient for inter-system ambiguity resolution at that particular frequency. Recently, many new GNSS satellites have been launched. At the beginning of 2016, there were 12 Galileo IOV/FOC satellites and 12 GPS Block IIF satellites in orbit, while the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) had five satellites launched of which four are operational. More launches are scheduled for the coming years. As a continuation of the earlier studies, we analyze the magnitude and stability of the DISBs corresponding to these new satellites. For IRNSS this article presents for the first time DISBs with respect to the L5/E5a signals of GPS, Galileo and QZSS for a mixed-receiver baseline. It is furthermore demonstrated that single-frequency (L5/E5a) ambiguity resolution is tremendously improved when the multi-GNSS observations are all differenced with respect to a common pivot satellite, compared to classical differencing for which a pivot satellite is selected for each constellation.


GPS Galileo QZSS IRNSS Multi-GNSS Differential inter-system bias (DISB) RTK 



Part of this work has been carried out in the context of the Positioning Program Project 1.19 “Multi-GNSS PPP-RTK Network Processing” of the Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial Information (CRC-SI) in Australia. P.J.G. Teunissen is the recipient of an Australian Research Council (ARC) Federation Fellowship (Project No. FF0883188). This support is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dennis Odijk
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nandakumaran Nadarajah
    • 1
  • Safoora Zaminpardaz
    • 1
  • Peter J. G. Teunissen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.GNSS Research CentreCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Geoscience and Remote SensingDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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