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Multi-GNSS precise point positioning with raw single-frequency and dual-frequency measurement models

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The emergence of multiple satellite navigation systems, including BDS, Galileo, modernized GPS, and GLONASS, brings great opportunities and challenges for precise point positioning (PPP). We study the contributions of various GNSS combinations to PPP performance based on undifferenced or raw observations, in which the signal delays and ionospheric delays must be considered. A priori ionospheric knowledge, such as regional or global corrections, strengthens the estimation of ionospheric delay parameters. The undifferenced models are generally more suitable for single-, dual-, or multi-frequency data processing for single or combined GNSS constellations. Another advantage over ionospheric-free PPP models is that undifferenced models avoid noise amplification by linear combinations. Extensive performance evaluations are conducted with multi-GNSS data sets collected from 105 MGEX stations in July 2014. Dual-frequency PPP results from each single constellation show that the convergence time of undifferenced PPP solution is usually shorter than that of ionospheric-free PPP solutions, while the positioning accuracy of undifferenced PPP shows more improvement for the GLONASS system. In addition, the GLONASS undifferenced PPP results demonstrate performance advantages in high latitude areas, while this impact is less obvious in the GPS/GLONASS combined configuration. The results have also indicated that the BDS GEO satellites have negative impacts on the undifferenced PPP performance given the current “poor” orbit and clock knowledge of GEO satellites. More generally, the multi-GNSS undifferenced PPP results have shown improvements in the convergence time by more than 60 % in both the single- and dual-frequency PPP results, while the positioning accuracy after convergence indicates no significant improvements for the dual-frequency PPP solutions, but an improvement of about 25 % on average for the single-frequency PPP solutions.

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We would like to acknowledge the efforts of the IGS MGEX campaign in providing multi-GNSS data and products. This study is supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No: 41374034) and partially sponsored by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2042014kf0081).

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Correspondence to Shengfeng Gu.

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Lou, Y., Zheng, F., Gu, S. et al. Multi-GNSS precise point positioning with raw single-frequency and dual-frequency measurement models. GPS Solut 20, 849–862 (2016).

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