Robust fine acquisition algorithm for GPS receiver with limited resources

Abstract

The signal acquisition stage of a GPS receiver detects GPS satellites in view and provides coarse estimate of the GPS signal Doppler frequency shift and code delay for use by the tracking loops. The accuracy of the signal acquisition has a direct influence on the tracking performance. The implementation of a GPS signal acquisition algorithm requires compromising between acquisition frequency resolution improvement and reduction in acquisition time. A robust fine acquisition method is proposed to acquire the carrier frequency accurately after the completion of the coarse acquisition of the GPS signals. The proposed method uses Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization to provide robust spectral estimation of satellite Doppler frequency with less computational time. The proposed method starts after the coarse acquisition has been accomplished. The C/A code phase is striped off from the carrier signal. Then, sinusoidal candidate functions are generated at each of the frequencies range of interest, which is typically set around the estimated Doppler shift acquired from the coarse acquisition stage. Finally, an orthogonal search algorithm is utilized to detect the carrier frequency accurately. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated against of the computational load and the effects of the noise. Its performance was also compared to the state-of-the-art FFT and zero-padding FFT-based fine acquisition algorithms. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms existing methods and has sufficient acquisition accuracy for its application in the real world.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16

References

  1. Adeney K, Korenberg M (1994) Fast orthogonal search for array processing and spectrum estimation. In: Vision, Image and Signal Processing, IEE Proceedings 141, pp 13–18

  2. Akopian D, Valio H, Turunen S (2001) Fine frequency resolving acquisition methods for GPS receivers. In: Proceedings ION GPS 2002, Institute of navigation, Portland, OR, pp 2515–2523

  3. Babu SR, Selvam P, Rao GS, Wang J (2011) Optimization of GPS L1 acquisition using Radix-4 FFT. In: Proceedings IEEE international conference on recent trends in information technology (ICRTIT), pp 875–879

  4. Borio D (2008) A Statistical Theory for GNSS Signal Acquisition. PhD thesis, Politecnico Di Torino

  5. Borre K, Akos DM, Bertelsen N, Rinder P, Jensen SH (2007) A software-defined GPS and Galileo receiver: a single-frequency approach. Springer Science & Business Media, doi: 10.1007/978-0-8176-4540-3

  6. Chon KH (2001) Accurate identification of periodic oscillations buried in white or colored noise using fast orthogonal search biomedical engineering. Biomed Eng IEEE Trans 48:622–629

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Foucras M, Julien O, Macabiau C, Ekambi B (2014) Detailed analysis of the impact of the code Doppler on the acquisition performance of new GNSS Signals. In: Proceedings ION ITM 2015, Institute of navigation, San Diego, CA, 27–29 Jan, pp 513–524

  8. Geiger BC, Vogel C (2011) Influence of doppler bin width on GPS acquisition probabilities. Aerosp Electr Syst IEEE Trans 49:2570–2584

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Korenberg MJ (1989) Fast orthogonal algorithms for nonlinear system identification and time-series analysis. Adv Methods Physiol Syst Model 2:165–177

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Ma X, Cui Y, Stojmenovic I (2012) Energy efficiency on location based applications in mobile cloud computing: a survey. Proc Comput Sci 10:577–584

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Mongrédien C, Lachapelle G, Cannon M (2006) Testing GPS L5 acquisition and tracking algorithms using a hardware simulator. In: Proceedings ION GNSS 2006, Fort Worth, TX, pp 2901–2913

  12. NovAtel (2013) Digital GNSS Antenna (Prototype) - DGA NovAtel R&D Project: FireHose. Test Setup and Interface Guide D17088

  13. O’Driscoll C (2007) Performance Analysis of the Parallel Acquisition of Weak GPS Signals. PhD thesis, National University of Ireland

  14. Parkinson B, Spilker J (1996) global positioning system: theory and applications I. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Washington, USA. doi: 10.2514/4.866388

  15. Psiaki ML (2001) Block acquisition of weak GPS signals in a software receiver. In: Proceedings ION GPS 2001 Conference, Salt Lake City, USA

  16. Sagiraju PK, Akopian D, Valio H (2001) Fine frequency estimation in weak signals for GPS receivers. In: Proceedings ION 2006 National technical meeting, Monterey, CA, pp 908–913

  17. Tang X, Falletti E, Lo Presti L (2012) Fine Doppler frequency estimation in GNSS signal acquisition process. In: Proceedings IEEE satellite navigation technologies and European workshop on GNSS signals and signal processing, Noordwijk, pp 1–6

  18. Tokarz K, Dzik M (2009) Improving quality of satellite navigation devices. In: Man-Machine Interactions, doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-00563-3_71

  19. Tsui JBY (2000) Acquisition of GPS C/A code signals in fundamentals of global positioning system receivers: a software approach. Wiley, New York. doi:10.1002/0471200549

    Google Scholar 

  20. Wang K, Jiang R, Li Y, Zhang N (2013) A new algorithm for fine acquisition of GPS carrier frequency. GPS Solut 18:581–592

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Zeng D, Li J (2010) GPS signal fine acquisition algorithm. In: Proceedings IEEE on Information Science and Engineering (ICISE), pp 3729–3732

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada. The authors would like to thank NovAtel Inc., for facilitating the use of the front-end FireHose GPS receiver.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Consortia

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohamed Tamazin.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tamazin, M., Noureldin, A., Korenberg, M.J. et al. Robust fine acquisition algorithm for GPS receiver with limited resources. GPS Solut 20, 77–88 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10291-015-0463-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Fine acquisition
  • GPS
  • Software receiver
  • Doppler shift