A study on the dependency of GNSS pseudorange biases on correlator spacing


We provide a comprehensive overview of pseudorange biases and their dependency on receiver front-end bandwidth and correlator design. Differences in the chip shape distortions among GNSS satellites are the cause of individual pseudorange biases. The different biases must be corrected for in a number of applications, such as positioning with mixed signals or PPP with ambiguity resolution. Current state-of-the-art is to split the pseudorange bias into a receiver- and a satellite-dependent part. As soon as different receivers with different front-end bandwidths or correlator designs are involved, the satellite biases differ between the receivers and this separation is no longer practicable. A test with a special receiver firmware, which allows tracking a satellite with a range of different correlator spacings, has been conducted with live signals as well as a signal simulator. In addition, the variability of satellite biases is assessed through zero-baseline tests with different GNSS receivers using live satellite signals. The receivers are operated with different settings for multipath mitigation, and the changes in the satellite-dependent biases depending on the receivers’ configuration are observed.

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Urs Hugentobler (Technische Universität München) and Peter Steigenberger (DLR/GSOC) are gratefully acknowledged for providing two Triumph-VS receiver for the zero-baseline experiment. Javad GNSS is acknowledged for providing a special SVN49 test firmware for the TRE-G3TH receiver.

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Correspondence to André Hauschild.

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Hauschild, A., Montenbruck, O. A study on the dependency of GNSS pseudorange biases on correlator spacing. GPS Solut 20, 159–171 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10291-014-0426-0

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  • Signal biases
  • GNSS
  • Zero baseline
  • Multipath mitigation
  • Signal simulator
  • Chip shape distortions