Skip to main content
Log in

Spoofing detection, classification and cancelation (SDCC) receiver architecture for a moving GNSS receiver

  • Original Article
  • Published:
GPS Solutions Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Spoofing in the form of transmitting fake GNSS signals is a deliberate attack that aims to mislead GNSS receivers into generating false position/time solutions. Current work on GNSS spoofing has mainly focused on spoofing detection where the proposed algorithms only indicate the presence of spoofing attacks. A new architecture consisting of spoofing detection, authentic/spoofing signal classification and spoofing cancelation known as spoofing detection, classification and cancelation for moving GNSS receivers is proposed. Predespreading and acquisition level analysis are performed to detect the presence of spoofing interference. The receiver motion is then used to classify the signals tracked into two groups, namely spoofing and authentic signal sets. A successive spoofing cancelation method is then developed to remove the spoofing signals from the raw digitized samples. It is shown that canceling out the spoofing signals removes multiple access interference and significantly improves the authentic signals’ detectability and tracking performance. Finally, after spoofing cancelation, authentic signals are acquired and tracked and their corresponding measurements are passed to a PVT engine for a reliable position solution. The proposed receiver architecture is analyzed in the acquisition, tracking and positioning layers.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Akos DM (2012) Who’s afraid of the spoofer? GPS/GNSS spoofing detection via automatic gain control (AGC). Navigation 59(4):281–290

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Broumandan A, Jafarnia A, Dehghanian V, Nielsen J, Lachapelle G (2012) GNSS spoofing detection in handheld receivers based on signal spatial correlation. Proc. IEEE/Ion Plans, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, pp. 479–487

  • Daneshmand S, Jafarnia A, Broumandan A, Lachapelle G (2012) A low-complexity GPS anti-spoofing method using a multi-antenna array. Proc. ION GNSS 2012, Institute of Navigation, Nashville TN, pp. 1233–1243

  • Duel-Hallen A, Holtzman J, Zvonar Z (1995) Multiuser detection for CDMA systems. Proc. IEEE Pers Commun 46–58

  • Glennon EP, Dempster AG (2004) A review of GPS cross correlation mitigation techniques. In Proceedings 2004 International Symposium on GPS/GNSS, Sydney, Australia

  • Humphreys TE, Ledvina BM, Psiaki ML, O’Hanlon BW, Kintner PM (2008) Assessing the spoofing threat: development of a portable GPS civilian spoofer. In Proceedings of ION GNSS 2008, Institute of Navigation, Savannah, GA, pp. 2314–2325

  • Jafarnia A (2013) GNSS signal authenticity verification in the presence of structural interference. PhD Thesis, Report No. 20385, Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary

  • Jafarnia A, Daneshmand S, Broumandan A, Nielsen J, Lachapelle G (2013) PVT solution authentication based on monitoring the clock state for a moving GNSS receiver. In Proceedings of European Navigation Conference (ENC2013). Vienna, Austria, p. 11

  • Jafarnia A, Broumandan A, Nielsen J, Lachapelle G (2014) Pre-despreading authenticity verification for GPS L1 C/A signals. Navigation 61(1):1–11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaplan E, Hegarty CJ (2006) Understanding GPS: principles and applications. Artech House Publishers, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Kay SM (1998) Fundamentals of statistical signal processing: detection theory. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River

    Google Scholar 

  • Lopez-Risue G, Seco-Granados G (2005) CN0 estimation and near-far mitigation for GNSS indoor receivers. Proc IEEE Veh Technol Spring Conf 4:2624–2628

    Google Scholar 

  • Madhani PH, Axelrad P, Krumvieda K, Thomas J (2003) Application of successive interference cancellation to GPS pseudolite near-far problem. IEEE Trans Aerosp Electron Syst 39(2):481–488

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mattos GP (2003) Solutions to the cross-correlation and oscillator stability problems for indoor C/A Code GPS Proc. ION GNSS 2003, Institute of Navigation, Portland, OR, pp. 654–659

  • McDowell CE (2007) GPS spoofer and repeater mitigation system using digital spatial nulling. US Patent 7250903 B1, p. 7

  • Montgomery PY, TE Humphreys, Ledvina BM (2009) Receiver-autonomous spoofing detection: experimental results of a multi-antenna receiver defense against a portable civil gps spoofer. In Proceedings ION ITM 2009, Institute of Navigation, Anaheim, CA, pp. 124–130

  • Moshavi S (1996) Multi-user detection for DS-CDMA communications. IEEE Commun Mag 34(10):124–136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nielsen J, Broumandan A, Lachapelle G (2011) GNSS spoofing detection for single antenna handheld receivers. Navigation 58(4):335–344

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nielsen J, Dehghanian V, Lachapelle G (2012) Effectiveness of GNSS spoofing countermeasure based on receiver CNR measurements. Int J Navig Obs 501679:9

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Brien AJ, Gupta IJ (2011) Mitigation of adaptive antenna induced bias errors in GNSS receivers. IEEE Trans Aerosp Electron Syst 47(1):524–538

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Petovello M, O’Driscoll C, Lachapelle G, Borio D, Murtaza H (2008) Architecture and benefits of an advanced GNSS software receiver. J Glob Position Syst 7(2):156–168

  • Proakis J, Salehi M (2005) Fundamentals of communication systems. Prentice Hall Inc, Upper Saddle River

    Google Scholar 

  • Psiaki ML, Powell SP, O’Hanlon BW (2013) GNSS spoofing detection using high-frequency antenna motion and carrier-phase data. In Proceedings ION GNSS 2013, Institute of Navigation, Nashville, TN, pp. 2949–2991

  • Scott L (2003) Anti-spoofing and authenticated signal architectures for civil navigation systems. In Proceedings ION GPS/GNSS 2003, Institute of Navigation, Portland, OR, pp. 1543–1552

  • Van Dierendonck AJ (2002) Determination of C/A code self-interference using cross-correlation simulations and receiver bench tests. In Proceedings ION GPS 2002, Institute of Navigation, Portland OR, pp. 630–642

  • Wen H, Huang PY, Dyer J, Archinal A, Fagan J (2005) Countermeasures for GPS signal spoofing. In Proceedings ION GNSS 2005, Institute of Navigation, Long Beach, CA, pp. 1285–1295

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ali Broumandan.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Broumandan, A., Jafarnia-Jahromi, A. & Lachapelle, G. Spoofing detection, classification and cancelation (SDCC) receiver architecture for a moving GNSS receiver. GPS Solut 19, 475–487 (2015).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: