GLONASS processing from mixed receiver types is typically subject to unmodeled inter-frequency phase biases which prevent carrier phase ambiguity parameters from converging to integers. Receiver-dependent values have been proposed to mitigate the contribution of these biases, but are still subject to a number of issues, such as firmware updates. Recent studies have demonstrated that the origin of inter-frequency biases is a misalignment between phase and code observations, and could be calibrated to first order by manufacturers. In this contribution, a calibration-free method for GLONASS ambiguity resolution is presented in which ambiguities naturally converge to integers. A mandatory condition is that two GLONASS satellites with adjacent frequency numbers are observed simultaneously, although this condition can be relaxed once a fixed solution has been obtained. This approach then permits the integration of different receiver types and firmware versions into seamless processing.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Al-Shaery A, Zhang S, Rizos C (2012) An enhanced calibration method of GLONASS inter-channel bias for GNSS RTK. GPS Solut. doi:10.1007/s10291-012-0269-5
Cai C, Gao Y (2008) Estimation of GPS-GLONASS system time difference with application to PPP. In: Proceeding of the ION GNSS 2008. The Institute of Navigation, Savannah, GA, pp 2880–2887
Cai C, Gao Y (2012) Modeling and assessment of combined GPS/GLONASS precise point positioning. GPS Solut. doi:10.1007/s10291-012-0273-9
Collins P, Bisnath S, Lahaye F, Héroux P (2010) Undifferenced GPS ambiguity resolution using the decoupled clock model and ambiguity datum fixing. NAVIGATION: J Inst Navig 57(2):123–135
Defraigne P, Baire Q (2011) Combining GPS and GLONASS for time and frequency transfer. Adv Space Res 47(2):265–275. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2010.07.003
Felhauer T (1997) On the impact of RF front-end group delay variations on GLONASS pseudorange accuracy. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS 1997. The Institute of Navigation, Kansas City, MO, pp 1527–1532
Grafarend E, Schaffrin B (1976) Equivalence of estimable quantities and invariants in geodetic networks. Zeitschrift für Vermessungswesen 101:485–491
Habrich H, Beutler G, Gurtner W, Rothacher M (1999) Double difference ambiguity resolution for GLONASS/GPS carrier phase. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS 1999. The Institute of Navigation, Nashville, TN, pp 1609–1618
Kozlov D, Tkachenko M, Tochilin A (2000) Statistical characterization of hardware biases in GPS + GLONASS receivers. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS 2000. The Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, UT, pp 817–826
Landau H, Euler HJ (1992) On-the-fly ambiguity resolution for precise differential positioning. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS 1992. The Institute of Navigation, Albuquerque, NM, pp 607–613
Mader G, Beser J, Leick A, Li J (1995) Processing GLONASS carrier phase observations—theory and first experience. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS 1995. The Institute of Navigation, Palm Springs, CA, pp 1041–1047
Pratt M, Burke B, Misra P (1998) Single-epoch integer ambiguity resolution with GPS-GLONASS L1-L2 data. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS 1998. The Institute of Navigation, Nashville, TN, pp 389–398
Reussner N, Wanninger L (2011) GLONASS inter-frequency biases and their effects on RTK and PPP carrier phase ambiguity resolution. In: Proceedings of the ION GNSS 2011. The Institute of Navigation, Portland, OR, pp 712–716
Sleewaegen JM, Simsky A, de Wilde W, Boon F, Willems T (2012) Demystifying GLONASS inter-frequency carrier phase biases. InsideGNSS 7(3):57–61
Takac F (2009) GLONASS inter-frequency biases and ambiguity resolution. InsideGNSS 4(2):24–28
Teunissen PJG (1985) Zero order design: generalized inverses, adjustment, the datum problem and S-transformations. In: Grafarend EW, Sansò F (eds) Optimization and design of geodetic networks. Springer, New York, pp 11–55
Teunissen PJG, Odijk D (1997) Ambiguity dilution of precision: definition, properties and application. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS 1997. The Institute of Navigation, Kansas City, MO, pp 891–899
Wang J, Rizos C, Stewart MP, Leick A (2001) GPS and GLONASS integration: modelling and ambiguity resolution issues. GPS Solut 5(1):55–64. doi:10.1007/PL00012877
Wanninger L (2012) Carrier-phase inter-frequency biases of GLONASS receivers. J Geod 86(2):139–148. doi:10.1007/s00190-011-0502-y
Wanninger L, Wallstab-Freitag S (2007) Combined processing of GPS, GLONASS, and SBAS code phase and carrier phase measurements. In: Proceedings of the ION GNSS 2007. The Institute of Navigation, Fort Worth, TX, pp 866–875
Yamada H, Takasu T, Kubo N, Yasuda A (2010) Evaluation and calibration of receiver inter-channel biases for RTK-GPS/GLONASS. In: Proceedings of the ION GNSS 2010. The Institute of Navigation, Portland, OR, pp 1580–1587
The authors would like to acknowledge the Geodetic Research Laboratory at UNB for sharing GNSS data from their continuously operating receivers. The reviewers of this paper are also acknowledged for their helpful suggestions in improving this manuscript. This paper is published under the auspices of the NRCan Earth Sciences Sector as contribution number 20120426.
About this article
Cite this article
Banville, S., Collins, P. & Lahaye, F. GLONASS ambiguity resolution of mixed receiver types without external calibration. GPS Solut 17, 275–282 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10291-013-0319-7
- Ambiguity resolution
- Inter-frequency biases
- Decoupled-clock model