GPS Solutions

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 275–282 | Cite as

GLONASS ambiguity resolution of mixed receiver types without external calibration

  • Simon BanvilleEmail author
  • Paul Collins
  • François Lahaye
Review Article


GLONASS processing from mixed receiver types is typically subject to unmodeled inter-frequency phase biases which prevent carrier phase ambiguity parameters from converging to integers. Receiver-dependent values have been proposed to mitigate the contribution of these biases, but are still subject to a number of issues, such as firmware updates. Recent studies have demonstrated that the origin of inter-frequency biases is a misalignment between phase and code observations, and could be calibrated to first order by manufacturers. In this contribution, a calibration-free method for GLONASS ambiguity resolution is presented in which ambiguities naturally converge to integers. A mandatory condition is that two GLONASS satellites with adjacent frequency numbers are observed simultaneously, although this condition can be relaxed once a fixed solution has been obtained. This approach then permits the integration of different receiver types and firmware versions into seamless processing.


GLONASS Ambiguity resolution Inter-frequency biases Decoupled-clock model 



The authors would like to acknowledge the Geodetic Research Laboratory at UNB for sharing GNSS data from their continuously operating receivers. The reviewers of this paper are also acknowledged for their helpful suggestions in improving this manuscript. This paper is published under the auspices of the NRCan Earth Sciences Sector as contribution number 20120426.


  1. Al-Shaery A, Zhang S, Rizos C (2012) An enhanced calibration method of GLONASS inter-channel bias for GNSS RTK. GPS Solut. doi: 10.1007/s10291-012-0269-5 Google Scholar
  2. Cai C, Gao Y (2008) Estimation of GPS-GLONASS system time difference with application to PPP. In: Proceeding of the ION GNSS 2008. The Institute of Navigation, Savannah, GA, pp 2880–2887Google Scholar
  3. Cai C, Gao Y (2012) Modeling and assessment of combined GPS/GLONASS precise point positioning. GPS Solut. doi: 10.1007/s10291-012-0273-9 Google Scholar
  4. Collins P, Bisnath S, Lahaye F, Héroux P (2010) Undifferenced GPS ambiguity resolution using the decoupled clock model and ambiguity datum fixing. NAVIGATION: J Inst Navig 57(2):123–135Google Scholar
  5. Defraigne P, Baire Q (2011) Combining GPS and GLONASS for time and frequency transfer. Adv Space Res 47(2):265–275. doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2010.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Felhauer T (1997) On the impact of RF front-end group delay variations on GLONASS pseudorange accuracy. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS 1997. The Institute of Navigation, Kansas City, MO, pp 1527–1532Google Scholar
  7. Grafarend E, Schaffrin B (1976) Equivalence of estimable quantities and invariants in geodetic networks. Zeitschrift für Vermessungswesen 101:485–491Google Scholar
  8. Habrich H, Beutler G, Gurtner W, Rothacher M (1999) Double difference ambiguity resolution for GLONASS/GPS carrier phase. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS 1999. The Institute of Navigation, Nashville, TN, pp 1609–1618Google Scholar
  9. Kozlov D, Tkachenko M, Tochilin A (2000) Statistical characterization of hardware biases in GPS + GLONASS receivers. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS 2000. The Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, UT, pp 817–826Google Scholar
  10. Landau H, Euler HJ (1992) On-the-fly ambiguity resolution for precise differential positioning. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS 1992. The Institute of Navigation, Albuquerque, NM, pp 607–613Google Scholar
  11. Mader G, Beser J, Leick A, Li J (1995) Processing GLONASS carrier phase observations—theory and first experience. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS 1995. The Institute of Navigation, Palm Springs, CA, pp 1041–1047Google Scholar
  12. Pratt M, Burke B, Misra P (1998) Single-epoch integer ambiguity resolution with GPS-GLONASS L1-L2 data. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS 1998. The Institute of Navigation, Nashville, TN, pp 389–398Google Scholar
  13. Reussner N, Wanninger L (2011) GLONASS inter-frequency biases and their effects on RTK and PPP carrier phase ambiguity resolution. In: Proceedings of the ION GNSS 2011. The Institute of Navigation, Portland, OR, pp 712–716Google Scholar
  14. Sleewaegen JM, Simsky A, de Wilde W, Boon F, Willems T (2012) Demystifying GLONASS inter-frequency carrier phase biases. InsideGNSS 7(3):57–61Google Scholar
  15. Takac F (2009) GLONASS inter-frequency biases and ambiguity resolution. InsideGNSS 4(2):24–28Google Scholar
  16. Teunissen PJG (1985) Zero order design: generalized inverses, adjustment, the datum problem and S-transformations. In: Grafarend EW, Sansò F (eds) Optimization and design of geodetic networks. Springer, New York, pp 11–55Google Scholar
  17. Teunissen PJG, Odijk D (1997) Ambiguity dilution of precision: definition, properties and application. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS 1997. The Institute of Navigation, Kansas City, MO, pp 891–899Google Scholar
  18. Wang J, Rizos C, Stewart MP, Leick A (2001) GPS and GLONASS integration: modelling and ambiguity resolution issues. GPS Solut 5(1):55–64. doi: 10.1007/PL00012877 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wanninger L (2012) Carrier-phase inter-frequency biases of GLONASS receivers. J Geod 86(2):139–148. doi: 10.1007/s00190-011-0502-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wanninger L, Wallstab-Freitag S (2007) Combined processing of GPS, GLONASS, and SBAS code phase and carrier phase measurements. In: Proceedings of the ION GNSS 2007. The Institute of Navigation, Fort Worth, TX, pp 866–875Google Scholar
  21. Yamada H, Takasu T, Kubo N, Yasuda A (2010) Evaluation and calibration of receiver inter-channel biases for RTK-GPS/GLONASS. In: Proceedings of the ION GNSS 2010. The Institute of Navigation, Portland, OR, pp 1580–1587Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon Banville
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paul Collins
    • 1
  • François Lahaye
    • 1
  1. 1.Natural Resources CanadaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations