GPS Solutions

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 177–184 | Cite as

Three carrier ambiguity resolution: distance-independent performance demonstrated using semi-generated triple frequency GPS signals

Original Article

Abstract

In spite of significant research in the development of efficient algorithms for three carrier ambiguity resolution, full performance potential of the additional frequency signals cannot be demonstrated effectively without actual triple frequency data. In addition, all the proposed algorithms showed their difficulties in reliable resolution of the medium-lane and narrow-lane ambiguities in different long-range scenarios. In this contribution, we will investigate the effects of various distance-dependent biases, identifying the tropospheric delay to be the key limitation for long-range three carrier ambiguity resolution. In order to achieve reliable ambiguity resolution in regional networks with the inter-station distances of hundreds of kilometers, a new geometry-free and ionosphere-free model is proposed to fix the integer ambiguities of the medium-lane or narrow-lane observables over just several minutes without distance constraint. Finally, the semi-simulation method is introduced to generate the third frequency signals from dual-frequency GPS data and experimentally demonstrate the research findings of this paper.

Keywords

GNSS Three carrier ambiguity resolution Combination Success probability 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial Information (CRC-SI) project 1.04 for regional GNSS positioning, the National Natural Science Funds of China (Grant No. 40674003; 40874016) as well as the Key Laboratory of Advanced Engineering Surveying of SBSM (Grant No. TJES0809). The authors are very grateful to the editor-in-chief Professor Alfred Leick for his constructive comments and suggestions on the manuscript.

References

  1. Collins J (1999) Assessment and development of a tropospheric delay model for aircraft users of the global positioning system, Technical Report No. 203, University of New Brunswick, New Brunswick, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  2. Feng Y, Rizos C, Higgins M (2007) Multiple carrier ambiguity resolution and performance benefits for RTK and PPP positioning services in regional areas, In: Proceedings of ION GNSS 20th international technical meeting of the satellite division, 25–28 September 2007, Fort Worth, TX, USA, pp 668–678Google Scholar
  3. Feng Y (2008) GNSS three carrier ambiguity resolution using ionosphere-reduced virtual signals. J Geodesy 82(12):847–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Feng Y, Li B (2008) A benefit of multiple carrier GNSS signals: regional scale network-based RTK with doubled inter-station distances. J Spatial Sci 53(1):135–147Google Scholar
  5. Forssell B, Martin-Neira M, Harris R (1997) Carrier phase ambiguity resolution in GNSS-2. In: Proceedings of ION GPS-97, 16–19 September 1997, Kansas City, pp 1727–1736Google Scholar
  6. Hatch R, Jung J, Enge P, Pervan B (2000) Civilian GPS: the benefits if three frequencies. GPS Solut 3(4):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Henkel P, Cünther C. (2007) Integrity analysis of cascaded integer resolution with decorrelation transformations. In: Proceedings of the institute of navigation, National Technical Meeting, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  8. Ji S, Chen W, Zhao C, Ding X, Chen Y (2007) Single epoch ambiguity resolution for Galileo with the CAR and LAMBDA methods. GPS Solut 11:259–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Leick A (2004) GPS satellite surveying, 3rd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Li B (2008) Generation of third code and phase signals based on dual-frequency GPS measurements. In: ION GNSS 2008, 16–19 September 2008, Savannah, GA, USA, pp 2820–2830Google Scholar
  11. Richert T, EI-Sheimy N (2007) Optimal linear combinations of triple frequency carrier phase data from future global navigation systems. GPS Solut 11:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Vollath U, Birnbach S, Landau H (1998) Analysis of three carrier ambiguity resolution (TCAR) technique for precise relative positioning in GNSS-2. In: Proceedings of ION GPS98, 15–18 September 1998, pp 417–426Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surveying and Geo-Informatics EngineeringTongji UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Faculty of Information TechnologyQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations