GPS Solutions

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 177–184 | Cite as

Three carrier ambiguity resolution: distance-independent performance demonstrated using semi-generated triple frequency GPS signals

  • Bofeng LiEmail author
  • Yanming Feng
  • Yunzhong Shen
Original Article


In spite of significant research in the development of efficient algorithms for three carrier ambiguity resolution, full performance potential of the additional frequency signals cannot be demonstrated effectively without actual triple frequency data. In addition, all the proposed algorithms showed their difficulties in reliable resolution of the medium-lane and narrow-lane ambiguities in different long-range scenarios. In this contribution, we will investigate the effects of various distance-dependent biases, identifying the tropospheric delay to be the key limitation for long-range three carrier ambiguity resolution. In order to achieve reliable ambiguity resolution in regional networks with the inter-station distances of hundreds of kilometers, a new geometry-free and ionosphere-free model is proposed to fix the integer ambiguities of the medium-lane or narrow-lane observables over just several minutes without distance constraint. Finally, the semi-simulation method is introduced to generate the third frequency signals from dual-frequency GPS data and experimentally demonstrate the research findings of this paper.


GNSS Three carrier ambiguity resolution Combination Success probability 



This work is supported by Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial Information (CRC-SI) project 1.04 for regional GNSS positioning, the National Natural Science Funds of China (Grant No. 40674003; 40874016) as well as the Key Laboratory of Advanced Engineering Surveying of SBSM (Grant No. TJES0809). The authors are very grateful to the editor-in-chief Professor Alfred Leick for his constructive comments and suggestions on the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surveying and Geo-Informatics EngineeringTongji UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Faculty of Information TechnologyQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia

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