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Using 3D-Printed Mesh-Like Brain Cortex with Deep Structures for Planning Intracranial EEG Electrode Placement

  • Ramin JavanEmail author
  • Maureen Schickel
  • Yuanlong Zhao
  • Terry Agbo
  • Cullen Fleming
  • Parisa Heidari
  • Taha Gholipour
  • Donald C. Shields
  • Mohamad Koubeissi
Article
  • 36 Downloads

Abstract

Surgical evaluation of medically refractory epilepsy frequently necessitates implantation of multiple intracranial electrodes for the identification of the seizure focus. Knowledge of the individual brain’s surface anatomy and deep structures is crucial for planning the electrode implantation. We present a novel method of 3D printing a brain that allows for the simulation of placement of all types of intracranial electrodes. We used a DICOM dataset of a T1-weighted 3D-FSPGR brain MRI from one subject. The segmentation tools of Materialise Mimics 21.0 were used to remove the osseous anatomy from brain parenchyma. Materialise 3-matic 13.0 was then utilized in order to transform the cortex of the segmented brain parenchyma into a mesh-like surface. Using 3-matic tools, the model was modified to incorporate deep brain structures and create an opening in the medial aspect. The final model was then 3D printed as a cerebral hemisphere with nylon material using selective laser sintering technology. The final model was light and durable and reflected accurate details of the surface anatomy and some deep structures. Additionally, standard surgical depth electrodes could be passed through the model to reach deep structures without damaging the model. This novel 3D-printed brain model provides a unique combination of visualizing both the surface anatomy and deep structures through the mesh-like surface while allowing repeated needle insertions. This relatively low-cost technique can be implemented for interdisciplinary preprocedural planning in patients requiring intracranial EEG monitoring and for any intervention that requires needle insertion into a solid organ with unique anatomy and internal targets.

Keywords

3D printing Deep electrode Brain surface anatomy Epilepsy EEG 

Abbreviations

3D

Three-dimensional

CT

Computed tomography

DICOM

Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine

FDM

Fused deposition modeling

FSPGR

Fast spoiled gradient echo

MJF

Multi Jet Fusion

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

PLA

Polylactic acid

SLS

Selective laser sintering

STL

Standard tessellation language or stereolithography

CPT

Current procedural terminology

Notes

Funding Information

The 3D model was purchased through dedicated departmental funds for 3D printing purposes in clinical, research, and educational endeavors at George Washington University Hospital, Department of Radiology.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Maureen Schickel is an employee of Materialise. No conflict of interest for other co-authors.

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Copyright information

© Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyGeorge Washington University HospitalWashington, DCUSA
  2. 2.George Washington University School of Medicine and Health SciencesWashington, DCUSA
  3. 3.Materialise USAPlymouthUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeurologyGeorge Washington University HospitalWashington, DCUSA
  5. 5.Department of NeurosurgeryGeorge Washington University HospitalWashington, DCUSA

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