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Andriod Device-Based Cervical Cancer Screening for Resource-Poor Settings

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Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is an effective, affordable and simple test for cervical cancer screening in resource-poor settings. But considerable expertise is needed to differentiate cancerous lesions from normal lesions, which is lacking in developing countries. Many studies have attempted automation of cervical cancer detection from cervix images acquired during the VIA process. These studies used images acquired through colposcopy or cervicography. However, colposcopy is expensive and hence is not feasible as a screening tool in resource-poor settings. Cervicography uses a digital camera to acquire cervix images which are subsequently sent to experts for evaluation. Hence, cervicography does not provide a real-time decision of whether the cervix is normal or not, during the VIA examination. In case the cervix is found to be abnormal, the patient may be referred to a hospital for further evaluation using Pap smear and/or biopsy. An android device with an inbuilt app to acquire images and provide instant results would be an obvious choice in resource-poor settings. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for analysis of cervix images acquired using an android device, which can be used for the development of decision support system to provide instant decision during cervical cancer screening. This algorithm offers an accuracy of 97.94%, a sensitivity of 99.05% and specificity of 97.16%.

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We would like to acknowledge the support of Dr. Suma Nair, Associate Professor, Community Medicine Department, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, for facilitating the acquisition of images during the screening programmes conducted.


This publication is made possible by a subagreement from the Consortium for Affordable Medical Technologies (CAMTech) at Massachusetts General Hospital with funds provided by the generous support of the American people through the US Agency for International Development (USAID Grant number224581). The contents are the responsibility of Manipal Academy of Higher Education and do not necessarily reflect the views of Massachusetts General Hospital, USAID or the US Government.

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Correspondence to Keerthana Prasad.

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Institutional Ethics Committee approval was obtained for this study, and an informed consent was obtained from the women participating in the study.

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Kudva, V., Prasad, K. & Guruvare, S. Andriod Device-Based Cervical Cancer Screening for Resource-Poor Settings. J Digit Imaging 31, 646–654 (2018).

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