, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 112–122 | Cite as

Toward resolving family-level relationships in rust fungi (Uredinales)



Rust fungi (Basidiomycota, Uredinales) consist of more than 7000 species of obligate plant pathogens that possess some of the most complex life cycles in the Eumycota. Traditionally, a limited number of synapomorphic characters and incomplete life-cycle and host-specificity data have hampered phylogenetic inference within the Uredinales. The application of modern molecular characters to rust systematics has been limited, and current contradictions, especially in the deeper nodes, have not yet been resolved. In this study, two nuclear rDNA genes (18S and 28S) were examined across the breadth of the Uredinales to resolve some systematic conflicts and provide a framework for further studies of the group. Three suborders of rusts are recovered. Of the 13 rust families most widely accepted, 8 are supported in full or in part (Coleosporiaceae, Melampsoraceae, Mikronegeriaceae, Phakopsoraceae p.p., Phragmidiaceae, Pileolariaceae, Pucciniaceae, Raveneliaceae), 3 are redundant (Cronartiaceae, Pucciniastraceae, Pucciniosiraceae), and the status of 2 (Chaconiaceae, Uropyxidaceae) could not be resolved. The Mikronegeriaceae and Caeoma torreyae are the most basal rusts sampled. It is concluded that morphology alone is a poor predictor of rust relationships at most levels. Host selection, on the other hand, has played a significant role in rust evolution.

Key words

Molecular systematics Pathogenic fungi Rust taxonomy Urediniomycetes 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arthur, JC 1924Fern rusts and their aeciaMycologia16245251Google Scholar
  2. Arthur, JC 1934Manual of the rusts in United States and CanadaPurdue Research FoundationLafayette, INGoogle Scholar
  3. Bessey, EA 1950Morphology and taxonomy of FungiBlakistonPhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonar, L 1951Two new fungi on TorreyaMycologia436266Google Scholar
  5. Buriticá, P, Hennen, J 1994Familia Phakopsoraceae (Uredinales). 1. Géneros anamórficos y teliomórficosRev Acad Colombiana Cien Exact Fís Natu194762Google Scholar
  6. Cummins GB, Hiratsuka Y (1983) Illustrated genera of rust fungi, revised edition American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MNGoogle Scholar
  7. Cummins, GB, Hiratsuka, Y 2003Illustrated genera of rust fungi3rd ednAmerican Phytopathological SocietySt. Paul, MNGoogle Scholar
  8. Cummins, GB, Ramachar, P 1958The genus Physopella replaces AngiopsoraMycologia50741744Google Scholar
  9. Dietel, P 1900


    Engler, APrantl, K eds. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, vol 1EngelmannLeipzig546553
    Google Scholar
  10. Dietel, P 1928


    Engler, APrantl, K eds. Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, vol 2EngelmannLeipzig2498
    Google Scholar
  11. Durrieu, G 1980Phylogeny of Uredinales on PinaceaeRep Tottori Mycol Inst18283290Google Scholar
  12. Eilam, T, Bushnell, WR, Anikster, Y 1994Relative nuclear DNA content of rust fungi estimated by flow cytometry of propidium iodide-stained pycniosporesPhytopathology84728735Google Scholar
  13. Evans, H 1993Studies on the rust Maravalia cryptostegiae, a potential biological control agent of rubber-vine weed (Cryptostegia grandiflora, Asclepiadaceae: Periplocoideae) in Australia. I: Life-cycleMycopathologia124163174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Greuter, W, McNeill, J, Barrie, FR, Burdet, HM, Demoulin, V, Filgueiras, TS, Nicolson, DH, Silva, PC, Skog, JE, Trehane, P, Turland, NJ, Hawksworth, DL 2000International code of botanical nomenclature (St. Louis code). Regnum Vegetabile 138KoeltzKönigsteinGoogle Scholar
  15. Hart, JA 1988Rust fungi and host plant coevolution: do primitive hosts harbor primitive parasites?Cladistics4339366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hennen, JF, Buriticá, P 1980A brief summary of modern rust taxonomic and evolutionary theoryRep Tottori Mycol Inst18243256Google Scholar
  17. Hennen, JF, McCain, JW 1993New species and records of Uredinales from the NeotropicsMycologia85970986Google Scholar
  18. Hiratsuka, Y 1990Auriculariaceous “rustRep Tottori Mycol Inst282530Google Scholar
  19. Hiratsuka, Y, Cummins, GB 1963Morphology of the spermogonia of the rust fungiMycologia55487507Google Scholar
  20. Hiratsuka, Y, Hiratsuka, N 1980Morphology of spermogonia and taxonomy of rust fungiRep Tottori Mycol Inst18257268Google Scholar
  21. Hopple, JS, Vilgalys, R 1999Phylogenetic relationships in the mushroom genus Coprinus and dark-spored allies based on sequence data from the nuclear gene coding for the large ribosomal subunit RNA: divergent domains, outgroups, and monophylyMol Phylogenet Evol13119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jackson, HS 1931Present evolutionary tendencies and the origin of life cycles in the UredinalesMem Torrey Bot Club185108Google Scholar
  23. Kirk, PM, Cannon, PF, David, JC, Stalpers, JA 2001Dictionary of the fungi9th ednCABIWallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
  24. Kropp, BR, Hansen, DR, Wolf, PG, Flint, KM, Thomson, SV 1997A study on the phylogeny of the dyer's woad rust fungus and other species of Puccinia from CrucifersPhytopathology87565571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Laundon, GF 1973


    Ainsworth, CGSparrow, FKSussman, AS eds. The Fungi, vol IVBAcademicNew York247279
    Google Scholar
  26. Leppik, EE 1955Evolution of angiosperms as mirrored in the phylogeny of rust fungiArch Soc Zool Bot Fennicae Vanamo9149160Google Scholar
  27. Leppik, EE 1972Evolutionary specialization of rust fungi (Uredinales) on the LeguminosaeAnn Bot Fenn9135148Google Scholar
  28. Leppik, EE 1973Origin and evolution of conifer rusts in the light of continental driftMycopathol Mycol Appl49121136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Linder, DH 1944A new rust of orchidsMycologia36464468Google Scholar
  30. Long, WH 1914Influence of the host on the morphological characters of Puccinia ellisiana and Puccinia andropogonisJ Agric Res2303319Google Scholar
  31. Maier, W, Begerow, D, Weib, M, Oberwinkler, F 2003Phylogeny of the rust fungi: an approach using nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequencesCan J Bot811223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mains, EB 1934Angiopsora, a new genus of rusts on grassesMycologia26122132Google Scholar
  33. McCain, JW, Hennen, JF, Ono, Y 1990New host species and state distribution records for North American rust fungi (Uredinales)Mycotaxon39281300Google Scholar
  34. Moncalvo, JM, Wang, HH, Hseu, RS 1995Phylogenetic relationships in Ganoderma inferred from the internal transcribed spacers and 25S ribosomal DNA sequencesMycologia87223238Google Scholar
  35. Ono, Y 1984A monograph of Maravalia (Uredinales)Mycologia76892911Google Scholar
  36. Ono, Y, Buriticá, P, Hennen, JF 1992Delimitation of Phakopsora, Physopella and Cerotelium and their species on LeguminosaeMycol Res96825850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ono, Y, Hennen, JF 1983Taxonomy of the Chaconiaceous genera (Uredinales)Trans Mycol Soc Jpn24369402Google Scholar
  38. Ono, Y, Kakishima, M, Kudo, A, Sato, S 1986Blastospora smilacis, a teleomorph of Caeoma makinoi, and its sorus developmentMycologia78253262Google Scholar
  39. Peterson, RS, Oehrens, E 1978Mikronegeria alba (Uredinales)Mycologia70321331Google Scholar
  40. Raciborski, M 1909Nalistne i pasrzytne grzyby Jawy: parasitische und epiphytische Pilze Java'sBull Int Acad Sci Cracov Ser 1 (Sci Mat Nat)3346394Google Scholar
  41. Ritschel, A, Oberwinkler, F, Berndt, R 2005Desmosrus, a new rust genus (Uredinales)Mycol Prog4333338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Savile, DBO 1968Parasite relationships and disposition of FilipendulaBrittonia20230231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Savile, DBO 1976Evolution of the rust fungi (Uredinales) as reflected by their ecological problemsEvol Biol9137207Google Scholar
  44. Savile, DBO 1978Paleoecology and convergent evolution in rust fungi (Uredinales)BioSystems103136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Scholler, M, Aime, MC 2006On some rust fungi (Uredinales) collected in an Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha woodland, Mauna Loa Road, Big Island HawaiiMycoscience47159165Google Scholar
  46. Sjamsuridzal, W, Nishida, H, Ogawa, H, Kakishima, M, Sugiyama, J 1999Phylogenetic positions of rust fungi parasitic on ferns: evidence from 18S rDNA sequence analysisMycoscience402127Google Scholar
  47. Strimmer, K, von Haeseler, A 1996Quartet puzzling: a quartet maximum-likelihood method for reconstructing tree topologiesMol Biol Evol13964969Google Scholar
  48. Swofford DL (2002) PAUP*: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods), version 4. Sinauer, Sunderland, MAGoogle Scholar
  49. Sydow, P, Sydow, H 1915Monographia Uredinearum, vol III. Pucciniaceae (excl. Puccinia et Uromyces) – Melampsoraceae – Zaghouaniaceae – ColeosporiaceaeLipsiaeFratres BorntraegerGoogle Scholar
  50. Thirumalachar, MJ, Cummins, GB 1949The taxonomic significance of sporogenous basal cells in the UredinalesMycologia41523526Google Scholar
  51. Thirumalachar, MJ, Mundkur, BB 1949aGenera of rusts IInd Phytopathol265101Google Scholar
  52. Thirumalachar, MJ, Mundkur, BB 1949bGenera of rusts IIInd Phytopathol2152Google Scholar
  53. Tiffney, BH, Barghoorn, ES 1974The fossil record of the fungiOccas Pap Farlow Herb7142Google Scholar
  54. Vilgalys, R, Hester, M 1990Rapid genetic identification and mapping of enzymatically amplified ribosomal DNA from several Cryptococcus speciesJ Bacteriol17242384246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Walker, J 2001A revision of the genus Atelocauda (Uredinales) and description of Racospermyces gen. nov. for some rusts of AcaciaAustralas Mycol20329Google Scholar
  56. White, TJ, Bruns, T, Lee, S, Taylor, J 1990

    Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics

    Innis, MAGelfand, DHSninsky, JJWhite, TJ eds. PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applicationsAcademic PressSan Diego315322
    Google Scholar
  57. Wingfield, BD, Ericson, L, Szaro, T, Burdon, JJ 2004Phylogenetic patterns in the UredinalesAustralas Plant Pathol33327335CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Mycological Society of Japan and Springer-Verlag Tokyo 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Systematic Botany and Mycology LaboratoryUSDA Agricultural Research ServiceBeltsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations