To examine the colonization of living leaves from buds and twigs by phyllosphere fungi of Japanese beech, the mycobiota were investigated on buds and twigs and on leaves covered with well-ventilated bags before budbreak. Ten phyllosphere fungi were isolated from rolled-up leaves within buds, bud scales, and twigs. However, frequencies of phyllosphere fungi on expanded leaves were reduced markedly when the buds were covered with well-ventilated bags before budbreak compared to the leaves that were not covered. This observation suggests that invasion of the fungi to the leaves from buds and twigs may be possible but is not the main route. Horizontal transmission may be common in endophytes and epiphytes of beech leaves. Phyllosphere mycobiota were then compared between sun and shade leaves. Of 13 species recorded as phyllosphere fungi, the frequencies of 2 species were lower and those of 3 species were higher in sun leaves than in shade leaves. Frequencies of the other 8 phyllosphere species were not different between sun and shade leaves. This result indicates that the colonization of leaves by some phyllosphere fungi was affected by the microenvironmental conditions on leaf surfaces.
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Osono, T., Mori, A. Colonization of Japanese beech leaves by phyllosphere fungi. Mycoscience 44, 437–441 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10267-003-0135-y
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