Evaluation of the usage-induced degradation of Genius and Reciproc nickel–titanium reciprocating instruments
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The aim of this study was to characterize the main features and the usage-induced degradation of the Genius file after four severely curved root canal instrumentations and to compare their properties to the Reciproc files. Brand new and ex vivo used files were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical metallography, and nano-indentation to disclose their morphological, chemical, mechanical, thermal, and phase composition features. Nano-indentation data were statistically analysed using the Student’s t test for normal distribution or the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test for not-normal distributions. SEM analysis showed the presence of micro-cracks near the tip on both files after ex vivo usage test. EDS analysis confirmed that both files are manufactured from an almost equiatomic NiTi alloy. DSC analysis revealed that the transition temperature of the Genius is below 20 °C, while that of the Reciproc is above 20 °C. XRD analysis of Genius files identified cubic B2 austenite with minor peaks of residual monoclinic B19 martensite, while the contemporaneous presence of martensite, austenite and hexagonal R-phase was observed in the Reciproc files. Significant differences in nanohardness and modulus of elasticity (P < .05) were observed in both Genius and Reciproc files before and after use. The collected results showed that both instruments can be safely used as single-use files.
KeywordsDifferential scanning calorimetry Genius files Metallurgical characterization Reciproc Reciprocating motion
The authors would like to thank Professor Francesco Cavani for assistance in statistical analysis.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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