Effect of a calcium chloride solution treatment on physical and mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements
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This paper details a novel method to improve wear resistance of dental glass ionomer cement (GIC) restorations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of a calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution treatment on surface hardness, surface roughness, compressive strength, water sorption and solubility of three conventional glass ionomer cements (GICs). Additionally, the changes of the Ca composition and morphology of the surface of the tested GICs were also investigated. The experimental groups of the study were: Group 1 (control) specimens after mixing were left in the mold to set without any treatment for 5 min; Group 2 specimens were left in the mold to set for 5 min and then each specimen was immersed in 10 ml of 42.7 wt% CaCl2 solution for 60 s. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests (a = 0.05). Calcium chloride solution treatment increased surface hardness of the GICs compared to control groups (P < 0.05), while surface roughness and compressive strength did not change after the treatment (P > 0.05). Reduction in water sorption and solubility was detected but not in all CaCl2 solution-treatment groups. No alterations were observed in surface morphology of the GICs, while surface calcium composition was increased after the treatment (P < 0.05). The use of a CaCl2 solution immediately after initial setting of GICs may be advantageous for some properties of the materials and possibly leads to improved prognosis and wear resistance of their restorations.
KeywordsCalcium chloride solution Glass ionomer cements Surface treatment Physical properties Mechanical properties
The authors would like to thank Eleni Pavlidou, Associate Professor at the Solid State Physics Division, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, and Stavros Oikonomidis for their help with SEM observations and EDS analysis of specimens for the purposes of this study. In addition, the authors acknowledge with thanks Dr. Alexandros Nikolaidis for his technical support in compressive strength and surface roughness measurements, which were implemented at the Department of Basic Dental Sciences, Division of Dental Tissues Pathology and Therapeutics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
There are no human participants or animal in this study
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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