, Volume 106, Issue 3, pp 328–333 | Cite as

Color stability of different composite resins after polishing

  • Stefano Ardu
  • O. Duc
  • E. Di Bella
  • I. Krejci
  • René Daher
Original Article


The goals of the present study were to evaluate, in vitro, the staining of different composite resins submitted to different common beverages, and to compare the staining effect of each of these solutions. A total of 288 specimens were randomly divided into six groups and immersed for 4 weeks in five staining solutions represented by red wine, orange juice, coke, tea and coffee or in artificial saliva as a control group. When analyzed over a black background, mean ΔE00 values varied from 0.8 for Venus Diamond, Saremco Microhybrid and ELS in saliva and Estelite Posterior in coke to 37.6 for Filtek Supreme in red wine. When analyzed over a white background, mean ΔE00 values varied from 0.5 for Saremco Microhybrid in saliva to 51.1 for Filtek Supreme in red wine. All materials showed significant changes in color after 4 weeks of immersion in staining solutions. Significant differences were found between the tested composite resins and also between the staining solutions.


Composite Staining Color difference Spectrophotometer L * a * b 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Spreafico RC, Krejci I, Dietschi D. Clinical performance and marginal adaptation of class II direct and semidirect composite restorations over 3.5 years in vivo. J Dent. 2005;33:499–507.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lander E, Dietschi D. Endocrowns: a clinical report. Quintessence Int. 2008;39:99–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dietschi D. Optimising aesthetics and facilitating clinical application of free-hand bonding using the ‘natural layering concept. Br Dent J. 2008;204:181–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pastila P, Lassila LV, Jokinen M, Vuorinen J, Vallittu PK, Mäntylä T. Effect of short-term water storage on the elastic properties of some dental restorative materials—a resonant ultrasound spectroscopy study. Dent Mater. 2007;23:878–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morena R, Beaudreau GM, Lockwood PE, Evans AL, Fairhurst CW. Fatigue of dental ceramics in a simulated oral environment. J Dent Res. 1986;65:993–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tekce N, Tuncer S, Demirci M, Serim ME, Baydemic C. The effect of different drinks on the color stability of different restorative materials after one month. Restor Dent Endod. 2015;40:255–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kramer N, Reinelt C, Frankenberg R. Ten-year clinical performance of posterior resin composite restorations. J Adhes Dent. 2015;17:433–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Acar O, Yilmaz B, Altintas SH, Chandrasekaran I, Johnston WM. Color stainability of CAD/CAM and nanocomposite resin materials. J Prosthet Dent. 2016;115:71–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kumari RV, Nagaraj H, Siddaraju K, Poluri RK. Evaluation of the effect of surface polishing, oral beverages and food colorants on color stability and surface roughness of nanocomposite resins. J Int Oral Health. 2015;7:63–70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yildiz E, SirinKaraarslan E, Simsek M, Ozsevik AS, Usumez A. Color stability and surface roughness of polished anterior restorative materials. Dent Mater J. 2015;34:629–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heinze SD, Rousson V, Hickel R. Clinical effectiveness of direct anterior restorations—a meta-analysis. Dent Mater. 2015;31:481–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bezgin T, Ozer L, Tulga Oz F, Ozcan P. Effect of toothbrushing on color changes of esthetic restorative materials. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2015;27(S1):65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karaman E, Tuncer D, Firat E, Ozdemir OS, Karahan S. Influence of different staining beverages on color stability, surface roughness and microhardness of silorane and methacrylate-based composite resin. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2014;15:319–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tan BL, Yap AU, Ma HN, Chew J, Tan WJ. Effect of beverages on color translucency of new tooth-colored restoratives. Oper Dent. 2015;40:56–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Harorli OT, Barutcigil C. Color recovery effect of commercial mouth rinses on a discolored composite. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2014;26:256–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ardu S, Braut V, Gutemberg D, Krejci I, Dietschi D, Feilzer AJ. A long-term laboratory test on staining susceptibility of esthetic composite resin materials. Quintessence Int. 2010;41:695–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ferracane JL. Correlation between hardness and degree of conversion during the setting reaction of unfilled dental restorative resins. Dent Mater. 1985;1:11–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ferracane JL, Moser JB, Greener EH. Ultraviolet light-induced yellowing of dental restorative resins. J Prosthet Dent. 1985;54:483–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Douglas WH, Craig RG, Douglas WH. Resistance to extrinsic stains by hydrophobic composite resin systems. J Dent Res. 1982;61:41–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Satou N, Khan AM, Matsumae I, Satou J, Shintani H. In vitro color change of composite-based resins. Dent Mater. 1989;5:384–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Waerhaug J. Temporary restorations: advantages and disadvantages. Dent Clin North Am. 1980;24:305–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pipko JD, El-Sadeek M. An in vitro investigation of abrasion and staining of dental resins. J Dent Res. 1972;51:689–705.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nordbo H, Attramadal A, Eriksen HM. Iron discoloration of acrylic resin exposed to chlorhexidine or tannic acid: a model study. J Prosthet Dent. 1983;49:126–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Um CM, Ruyter IE. Staining of resin-based veneering materials with coffee and tea. Quintessence Int. 1991;22:377–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Scotti R, Mascellani SC, Forniti F. The in vitro color stability of acrylic resin for provisional restorations. Int J Prosthodont. 1997;10:164–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Asmussen E, Hansen EK. Surface discoloration of restorative resins in relation to surface softening and oral hygiene. Scand J Dent Res. 1986;94:174–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bolt RA, Bosh JJ, Coops JC. Influence of window size in small-window colour measurement, particularly of teeth. Phys Med Biol. 1994;39:1133–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hachiya Y, Iwaku M, Hosoda H, Fusayama T. Relation of finish to discoloration of composite resins. J Prosthet Dent. 1984;52:811–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shintani H, Satou J, Satou N, Hayashira H, Inoue T. Effects of various finishing methods on staining and accumulation of Streptococcus mutans HS-6 on composite resins. Dent Mater. 1985;1:225–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Van Groeningen G, Jonnebloed W, Arends J. Composite degradation in vivo. Dent Mater. 1986;2:225–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Abu-Bakr N, Han L, Okamoto A, Iwaku M. Color stability of compomer after immersion in various media. J Esthet Dent. 2000;12:258–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fay RM, Walker CS, Power JM. Discoloration of a compomer by stains. J Gt Houst Dent Soc. 1998;69:12–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fay RM, Walker CS, Power JM. Color stability of hybrid ionomers after immersion in stains. Am J Dent. 1998;11:71–2.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Reis AF, Giannini M, Lovadino JR, Ambrosano JM. Effects of various finishing systems on the surface roughness and staining susceptibility of packable composite resins. Dent Mater. 2003;19:12–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chan KC, Fuller JL, Hormati AA. The ability of foods to stain two composite resins. J Prosthet Dent. 1980;43:542–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gross MD, Moser JB. A colorimetric study of coffee and tea staining of four composite resins. J Oral Rehabil. 1977;4:311–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Luce MS, Campbell CE. Stain potential of four microfilled composites. J Prosthet Dent. 1988;60:151–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ardu S, Duc O, Di Bella E, Krejci I. Color stability of recent composite resins. Odontology. 2017;105:29–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Park SH, Noh BD, Ahn HJ, Kim HK. Celluloid strip-finished versus polished composite surface: difference in surface discoloration in microhybrid composites. J Oral Rehabil. 2004;31:62–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Garoushi S, Lassila L, Hatem M, Shembesh M, Baady L, Salim Z, Vallittu P. Influence of staining solutions and whitening procedures on discoloration of hybrid composite resins. Acta Odontol Scand. 2013;71:144–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Borges AB, Marsilio AL, Pagani C, Rodrigues JR. Surface roughness of packable composite resins polished with various systems. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2004;16:42–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gönülol N, Yilmaz F. The effects of finishing and polishing techniques on surface roughness and color stability of nanocomposites. J Dent. 2012;40(S2):64–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nasim I, Neelakantan P, Sujeer R, Subbarao C. Colour stability of microfilled, microhybrid and nanocomposite resins—an in vitro study. J Dent. 2010;38(S2):137–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Catelan A, Briso AL, Sundfeld RH, Goiato MC, dos Santos PH. Color stability of sealed composite resin restorative materials after ultraviolet artificial aging and immersion in staining solutions. J Prosthet Dent. 2011;105:236–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nasu T, Minesaki Y, Ito S, Kajihara H, Muraguchi K, Kadokawa A. Color stability of new composite denture tooth containing reactive organic composite filler. J Jpn Prosthodont Soc. 2004;48:242–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ertas E, Güler AU, Yècel AC, Köprül H, Güler E. Color stability of resin composites after immersion in different drinks. Dent Mater J. 2006;25:371–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Leloup G, Holvoet PE, Bebelman S, Devaux J. Raman scattering determination of the depth of cure of light-activated composites: influence of different clinically relevant parameters. J Oral Rehabil. 2002;29:510–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ardu S, Gutemberg D, Krejci I, Feilzer AJ, Di Bella E, Dietschi D. Influence of water sorption on resin composite color and color variation amongst various composite brands with identical shade code: an in vitro evaluation. J Dent. 2011;39(S1):37–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ardu S, Braut V, Di Bella E, Lefever D. Influence of background on natural tooth colour coordinates: an in vivo evaluation. Odontology. 2014;102:267–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Luo MR, Cui G, Rigg B. The development of the CIE 2000 color difference formula: CIEDE2000. Color Res Appl. 2001;26:340–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ghinea R, Pérez MM, Herrera LJ, Rivas MJ, Yebra A, Paravina RD. Color difference thresholds in dental ceramics. J Dent. 2010;38(Suppl 2):e57–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Alharbi A, Ardu S, Bortolotto T, Krejci I. Stain susceptibility of composite and ceramic CAD/CAM blocks versus direct resin composites with different resinous matrices. Odontology. 2017;105(2):162–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of The Nippon Dental University 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Ardu
    • 1
  • O. Duc
    • 2
  • E. Di Bella
    • 3
  • I. Krejci
    • 2
  • René Daher
    • 4
  1. 1.Treatment Plan Unit and Division of Cariology and Endodontology, Clinique Universitaire de Médecine Dentaire (CUMD)University of GenevaGenevaSwitzerland
  2. 2.Division of Cariology and Endodontology, Clinique Universitaire de Médecine Dentaire (CUMD)University of GenevaGenevaSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of Economics and Business StudiesUniversity of GenoaGenoaItaly
  4. 4.Teaching and Research Assistant, Division of Cariology and Endodontology, Clinique Universitaire de Médecine Dentaire (CUMD)University of GenevaGenevaSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations