The purpose of this investigation was to determine the ability of tetracycline-containing fibers to inhibit biofilm formation of peri-implantitis-associated pathogens [i.e., Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa)]. Tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) was added to a poly(DL-lactide) [PLA], poly(ε-caprolactone) [PCL], and gelatin [GEL] polymer blend solution at distinct concentrations to obtain the following fibers: PLA:PCL/GEL (TCH-free, control), PLA:PCL/GEL + 5 % TCH, PLA:PCL/GEL + 10 % TCH, and PLA:PCL/GEL + 25 % TCH. The inhibitory effect of TCH-containing fibers on biofilm formation was assessed by colony-forming units (CFU/mL). Qualitative analysis of biofilm inhibition was done via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Statistical significance was reported at p < 0.05. Complete inhibition of biofilm formation on the fibers was observed in groups containing TCH at 10 and 25 wt%. Fibers containing TCH at 5 wt% demonstrated complete inhibition of Aa biofilm. Even though a marked reduction in CFU/mL was observed with an increase in TCH concentration, Pi proved to be the most resilient microorganism. SEM images revealed the absence of or a notable decrease in bacterial biofilm on the TCH-containing nanofibers. Collectively, our data suggest that tetracycline-containing fibers hold great potential as an antibacterial dental implant coating.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Brånemark PI, Adell R, Breine U, Hansson BO, Lindström J, Ohlsson A. Intraosseous anchorage of dental prostheses. I. Experimental studies. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg. 1969;3:81–100.
Adell R, Lekholm U, Rockler B, Branemark PI. A 15-year study of osseointegrated implants in the treatment of the edentulous jaw. Int J Oral Surg. 1981;10:387–416.
Le Guéhennec L, Soueidan A, Layrolle P, Amouriq Y. Surface treatments of titanium dental implants for rapid osseointegration. Dent Mater. 2007;23:844–54.
Mendonça G, Mendonça DB, Aragão FJ, Cooper LF. Advancing dental implant surface technology from micron- to nanotopography. Biomaterials. 2008;29:3822–35.
Coelho PG, Jimbo R, Tovar N, Bonfante EA. Osseointegration: hierarchical designing encompassing the macrometer, micrometer, and nanometer length scales. Dent Mater. 2015;31:37–52.
Mendonça G, Mendonça DB, Simões LG, Araújo AL, Leite ER, Duarte WR, Aragão FJ, Cooper LF. The effects of implant surface nanoscale features on osteoblast-specific gene expression. Biomaterials. 2009;30:4053–62.
Mombelli A, Décaillet F. The characteristics of biofilms in peri-implant disease. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38(Suppl 11):203–13.
Mombelli A, Muller N, Cionca N. The epidemiology of peri-implantitis. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23(suppl 6):67–76.
Monje A, Alcoforado G, Padial-Molina M, Suarez F, Lin GH, Wang HL. Generalized aggressive periodontitis as a risk factor for dental implant failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Periodontol. 2014;85:1398–407.
Heitz-Mayfield LJ, Mombelli A. The therapy of peri-implantitis: a systematic review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2014;29(Suppl):325–45.
Chrcanovic BR, Albrektsson T, Wennerberg A. Periodontally compromised vs. periodontally healthy patients and dental implants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dent. 2014;42:1509–27.
Mailoa J, Lin GH, Chan HL, MacEachern M, Wang HL. Clinical outcomes of using lasers for peri-implantitis surface detoxification: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Periodontol. 2014;85:1194–202.
Bassetti M, Schär D, Wicki B, Eick S, Ramseier CA, Arweiler NB, Sculean A, Salvi GE. Anti-infective therapy of peri-implantitis with adjunctive local drug delivery or photodynamic therapy: 12-month outcomes of a randomized controlled clinical trial. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2014;25:279–87.
Albuquerque MT, Ryan SJ, Münchow EA, Kamocka MM, Gregory RL, Valera MC, Bottino MC. Antimicrobial effects of novel triple antibiotic paste-mimic scaffolds on Actinomyces naeslundii biofilm. J Endod. 2015. doi:10.1016/j.joen.2015.03.005 [Epub ahead of print].
Albuquerque MT, Valera MC, Moreira CS, Bresciani E, de Melo RM, Bottino MC. Effects of ciprofloxacin-containing scaffolds on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. J Endod. 2015;41:710–4.
Waeiss RA, Negrini TC, Arthur RA, Bottino MC. Antimicrobial effects of drug-containing electrospun matrices on osteomyelitis-associated pathogens. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;72:1310–9.
Bottino MC, Arthur RA, Waeiss RA, Kamocki K, Gregson KS, Gregory RL. Biodegradable nanofibrous drug delivery systems: effects of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin on periodontopathogens and commensal oral bacteria. Clin Oral Investig. 2014;18:2151–8.
Bottino MC, Kamocki K, Yassen GH, Platt JA, Vail MM, Ehrlich Y, Spolnik KJ, Gregory RL. Bioactive nanofibrous scaffolds for regenerative endodontics. J Dent Res. 2013;92:963–9.
Wittrig EE, Zablotsky MH, Layman DL, Meffert RM. Fibroblastic growth and attachment on hydroxyapatite-coated titanium surfaces following the use of various detoxification modalities. Part I: Noncontaminated hydroxyapatite. Implant Dent. 1992;1:189–94.
Wheelis SE, Gindri IM, Valderrama P, Wilson TG Jr, Huang J, Rodrigues DC. Effects of decontamination solutions on the surface of titanium: investigation of surface morphology, composition, and roughness. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2015. doi:10.1111/clr.12545 [Epub ahead of print].
Connell SR, Tracz DM, Nierhaus KH, Taylor DE. Ribosomal protection proteins and their mechanism of tetracycline resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:3675–81.
Wilcox JR, Covington DS, Paez N. Doxycycline as a modulator of inflammation in chronic wounds. Wounds. 2012;24:339–49.
Li LL, Wang LM, Xu Y, Lv LX. Preparation of gentamicin-loaded electrospun coating on titanium implants and a study of their properties in vitro. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2012;132:897–903.
Gilchrist SE, Lange D, Letchford K, Bach H, Fazli L, Burt HM. Fusidic acid and rifampicin co-loaded PLGA nanofibers for the prevention of orthopedic implant associated infections. J Control Release. 2013;170:64–73.
Ravichandran R, Ng CCh, Liao S, Pliszka D, Raghunath M, Ramakrishna S, Chan CK. Biomimetic surface modification of titanium surfaces for early cell capture by advanced electrospinning. Biomed Mater. 2012;7:015001.
Kim YJ, Park MR, Kim MS, Kwon OH. Polyphenol-loaded polycaprolactone nanofibers for effective growth inhibition of human cancer cells. Mater Chem Phys. 2012;133:674–80.
Oettinger-Barak O, Dashper SG, Catmull DV, Adams GG, Sela MN, Machtei EE, Reynolds EC. Antibiotic susceptibility of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans JP2 in a biofilm. J Oral Microbiol. 2013;5:20320.
Ruan Y, Shen L, Zou Y, Qi Z, Yin J, Jiang J, Guo L, He L, Chen Z, Tang Z, Qin S. Comparative genome analysis of Prevotella intermedia strain isolated from infected root canal reveals features related to pathogenicity and adaptation. BMC Genom. 2015;16:122.
van Winkelhoff AJ, Herrera D, Oteo A, Sanz M. Antimicrobial profiles of periodontal pathogens isolated from periodontitis patients in The Netherlands and Spain. J Clin Periodontol. 2005;32:893–8.
Albertini M, López-Cerero L, O’Sullivan MG, Chereguini CF, Ballesta S, Ríos V, Herrero-Climent M, Bullón P. Assessment of periodontal and opportunistic flora in patients with peri-implantitis. Clin Oral Implant Res. 2014;26:937–41.
Casado PL, Otazu IB, Balduino A, de Mello W, Barboza EP, Duarte ME. Identification of periodontal pathogens in healthy periimplant sites. Implant Dent. 2011;20:226–35.
Chukwudi CU. Ribosomal RNA binding sites and the molecular mechanism of action of the tetracyclines. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 May 31. pii: AAC.00594-16. [Epub ahead of print]
Bottino MC, Münchow EA, Albuquerque MTP, Kamocki K, Shahi R, Gregory RL, Chu TG, Pankajakshan D. Tetracycline-incorporated polymer nanofibers as a potential dental implant surface modifier. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2016. doi:10.1002/jbm.b.33743.
This study was performed as part of the requirements for the MSD in Periodontics at IU School of Dentistry (IUSD). This work was partially supported by a grant from Delta Dental Foundation to Dr. Rana G. Shahi. M.C.B. acknowledges funding support from IUSD and the NIH-NIDCR (Grant # DE023552). The authors thank Mr. George Eckert, Indiana University School of Medicine, for his statistical analyses.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Shahi, R.G., Albuquerque, M.T.P., Münchow, E.A. et al. Novel bioactive tetracycline-containing electrospun polymer fibers as a potential antibacterial dental implant coating. Odontology 105, 354–363 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10266-016-0268-z