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Area-ratio Fraunhofer line depth (aFLD) method approach to estimate solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence in low spectral resolution spectra in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest

Abstract

Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) emissions were estimated by the "area-ratio Fraunhofer line depth (aFLD) method", a new retrieval methodology in spectra from a low spectral resolution (SR) spectroradiometer (MS-700: full width half maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm and spectral sampling interval of 3.3 nm), assisted with a scaling to reference SIF detected from high SR spectrum. The sparse pixels of a spectrum of low SR misses detecting the minimum of the O2A absorption band around at 760 nm, which makes the SIF detection by conventional FLD methods lose accuracy considerably. To overcome this, the aFLD method uses the definite integral of spectra over a wide interval between 750 and 780 nm. The integration of the spectrum is insusceptible to the change in shape of the depression curve, leading to higher accuracy of the aFLD method. Daily SIF, calculated by the aFLD method using the spectra obtained with MS-700, was scaled to reference daily SIF calculated by the spectral fitting method using the spectra obtained from August to December 2019 with an ultrafine SR spectroradiometer (QE Pro, FWHM = 0.24 nm). As a result, SIF calculated from MS-700 spectra by aFLD method was strongly correlated with the reference SIF from QE Pro spectra (r2 = 0.81) and was successfully scaled. Then, the scaled 11-year SIF from MS-700 at a deciduous broadleaf forest showed the correlation with GPP at multiple time steps: daily, monthly, and yearly, consistently during 2008–2018. The comparison of aFLD-derived SIF with the global Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) SIF data set (GOSIF) showed high correlation on monthly values during 2008–2017 (r2 = 0.85). The combining approach of the aFLD method with a scaling to reference SIF successfully detected long-term canopy SIF emissions, which has great potential to provide essential information on ecosystem-level photosynthesis.

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Acknowledgements

We thank the students at Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, for their cooperation with this study. This research was performed by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (2-1903, 2RH-1601) of the Environmental Restoration and Conservation Agency of Japan. This research was also supported by KAKENHI programs, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) 18H03350, and Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research 15K12182, by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. The research facility at the TKY site is supported by the Joint Research Program of River Basin Research Center, Gifu University and KAKENHI programs (26241005 and 19H03301) to HM.

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NN designed and analyzed the study and wrote the initial draft of the manuscript. TK initiated core concepts of the study and supervised the organization of the manuscript. TM provided the QE Pro data and contributed to the analyses and interpretation of data. TKA and KNN conducted and managed the spectral observations. SM was responsible for CO2 flux measurement. HM was responsible for tower magagement and long-term observations at the research site. HMN contributed to interpretation of data and satellite information. All other authors contributed to the data collection and interpretation, and they critically reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

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Correspondence to Naohisa Nakashima or Tomomichi Kato.

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Nakashima, N., Kato, T., Morozumi, T. et al. Area-ratio Fraunhofer line depth (aFLD) method approach to estimate solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence in low spectral resolution spectra in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest. J Plant Res 134, 713–728 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-021-01322-3

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Keywords

  • Deciduous broadleaf forest
  • Gross primary production
  • Long-term ground-measurement
  • Phenological eyes network (PEN)
  • Satellite SIF product
  • SIF calibration
  • Validation