Skip to main content

Why pendulum symmetry is absent from the cymose partial inflorescences of Cannaceae? Insights into the essential characteristic of cincinni

Abstract

In a typical cincinnus, the neighboring two flowers are generally enantiomorphic, which leads to the pendulum symmetry of the entire cyme. While in a two-flowered Cannaceae cincinnus, the flowers develop the same chirality. In this study, we observed several abnormal cincinni of Canna indica that extended longer than their normal form, which presented a second enantiomorphic flower, thus reflecting a typical pendulum symmetry. The chirality change of the second flower was strongly associated with the position of the lateral cincinnus meristem, which determines the angle size of the cincinnus zigzag shift and may serve as a key factor controlling the formation of pendulum symmetry. We propose that alternating floral chirality and the concomitant pendulum symmetry are the essential characteristics of a typical cincinnus. Accordingly, Canna flowers with the same chirality are arranged in modified cincinni.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  • Bradley D, Carpenter R, Copsey L, Vincent C, Rothstein S, Coen E (1996) Control of inflorescence architecture in Antirrhinum. Nature 379:791–797

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Castel R, Kusters E, Koes R (2010) Inflorescence development in petunia: through the maze of botanical terminology. J Exp Bot 61:2235–2246

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clark JI, Coen ES (2002) The cycloidea gene can respond to a common dorsoventral prepattern in Antirrhinum. Plant J 30:639–648

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coen ES, Nugent JM (1994) Evolution of flowers and inflorescences. Development 120:107–116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dahlgren R, Rasmussen FN (1983) Monocotyledon evolution: characters and phylogenetic estimation. Evol Biol 16:255–395

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Diggle PK (2003) Architectural effects on floral form and function: a review. In: Stuessy TF, Mayer V, Hörandl E (eds) Deep morphology: toward a renaissance of morphology in plant systematics. Regnum Vegetabile, Gantner, Ruggell, pp 63–80

    Google Scholar 

  • Endress PK (1999) Symmetry in flowers: diversity and evolution. Int J Plant Sci 160:S3–S23

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Endress PK (2010) Disentangling confusions in inflorescence morphology: patterns and diversity of reproductive shoot ramification in angiosperms. J Syst Evol 048:225–239

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Green PB (1988) A theory for inflorescence development and flower formation based on morphological and biophysical analysis in Echeveria. Planta 175:153–169

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hilger BHH (2003) Boraginaceae cymes are exclusively scorpioid and not helicoid. Taxon 52:719–724

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hofmeister W (1868) Allgemeine morphologie der Gewachse. Engelmann, Leipzig

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirchoff BK (1983) Floral organogenesis in five genera of the Marantaceae and in Canna (Cannaceae). Am J Bot 70:508–523

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kirchoff BK (1997) Inflorescence and flower development in the Hedychieae (Zingiberaceae): Hedychium. Can J Bot 75:581–594

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kirchoff BK (1998) Inflorescence and flower development in the Hedychieae (Zingiberaceae): Scaphochlamys kunstleri (Baker) Holttum. Int J Plant Sci 159:261–274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kirchoff BK (2003) Shape matters: Hofmeister’s rule, primordium shape, and flower orientation. Int J Plant Sci 164:505–517

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kirchoff BK (2017) Inflorescence and flower development in Musa velutina H. Wendl. & Drude (Musaceae), with a consideration of developmental variability, restricted phyllotactic direction, and hand initiation. Int J Plant Sci 178:259–272

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kirchoff BK, Kunze H (1995) Inflorescence and floral development in Orchidantha maxillarioides (Lowiaceae). Int J Plant Sci 156:159–171

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kress WJ (1990) The phylogeny and classification of the Zingiberales. Ann Missouri Bot Garden 77:698–721

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maasvan HK, Maas PJM (2008) The Cannaceae of the world. Blumea J Plant Taxon Plant Geogr 53:247–318

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miao MZ, Liu HF, Kuang YF, Zou P, Liao JP (2014) Floral vasculature and ontogeny in Canna indica. Nordic J Bot 32:485–492

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rogers GK (1984) The Zingiberales (Cannaceae, Marantaceae, and Zingiberaceae) in the southeastern United States. J Arnold Arboretum 65:5–55

    Google Scholar 

  • Rudall PJ, Bateman RM (2004) Evolution of zygomorphy in monocot flowers: iterative patterns and developmental constraints. New Phytol 162:25–44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tian X, Yu Q, Liu H, Liao J (2016) Temporal-spatial transcriptome analyses provide insights into the development of petaloid androecium in Canna indica. Front Plant Sci 7:1–11

    Google Scholar 

  • Tian X, Zou P, Miao M, Ning Z, Liao J (2018) RNA-Seq analysis reveals the distinctive adaxial–abaxial polarity in the asymmetric one-theca stamen of Canna indica. Mol Genet Genom 293:391–400

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tian X, Li X, Yu Q, Zhao H, Song J, Liao J (2020) Irregular adaxial–abaxial polarity rearrangement contributes to the monosymmetric-to-asymmetric transformation of Canna indica stamen. AoB Plants 12:plaa051

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhao ZG, Du GZ, Huang SQ (2010) The effect of flower position on variation and covariation in floral traits in a wild hermaphrodite plant. BMC Plant Biol 10:91

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank Prof. Yuke He (SIPPE) for his help in research conducting. This work was supported by Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (Grant Number: 2019A1515110029) and the National Science and Technology Infrastructure Program of China (Grant Number: 2015FY210100).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

XT observed the first abnormal cincinnus and then conceived and designed the research with the instruction of JL. QY performed the SEM observations. XT analyzed the data and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors contributed to the final version.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Xueyi Tian.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tian, X., Yu, Q., Lin, C. et al. Why pendulum symmetry is absent from the cymose partial inflorescences of Cannaceae? Insights into the essential characteristic of cincinni. J Plant Res 134, 797–802 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-021-01286-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-021-01286-4

Keywords

  • Canna indica
  • Floral chirality
  • Floral enantiomorphy
  • Inflorescence architecture
  • Scorpioid cyme
  • Zingiberales