Suppression of growth and death of meristematic tissues in Abies sachalinensis under strong shading: comparisons between the terminal bud, the terminally lateral bud and the stem cambium
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The suppression of apical growth and radial trunk growth in trees under shade is a key factor in the competition mechanism among individuals in natural and artificial forests. However, the timing of apical and radial growth suppression after shading and the physiological processes involved have not been evaluated precisely. Twenty-one Abies sachalinensis seedlings of 5-years-old were shaded artificially under a relative light intensity of 5% for 70 days from August 1, and the histological changes of the terminal bud and terminally lateral bud of terminal leader and the cambial zone of the trunk base were analyzed periodically. In shade-grown trees, cell death of the leaf primordia in a terminal bud of terminal leader was observed in one of the three samples after 56 and 70 days of shading, whereas the leaf primordia in a terminal bud of terminal leader in all open-grown trees survived until the end of the experiment. In addition, the leaf primordia of the terminally lateral buds of terminal leader retained their cell nuclei until the end of the experiment. No histological changes were observed in the cambial cells after shading, but the shade-grown trees had less cambial activity than the open-grown trees through the experiment. Strong shading appeared to inhibit the formation and survival of cells in the terminal bud of terminal leader rather than the terminally lateral buds of terminal leader and the cambium. The suppression of the terminal bud growth and elongation of the surviving lateral buds would result in an umbrella-shaped crown under shade.
KeywordsAbies sachalinensis Cambium Leaf primordia Shade Terminal bud Terminally lateral bud
The authors thank Mr. Yan Xiang and the staff of Ashoro Research Forest, Kyushu University for supporting nursery experiment. The authors thank the members of the Laboratory of Forest Production Control, Kyushu University, for valuable comments on our manuscript. This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant numbers 26450233 and 15H0245.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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