Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 131, Issue 4, pp 719–724 | Cite as

Euclidean distance can identify the mannitol level that produces the most remarkable integral effect on sugarcane micropropagation in temporary immersion bioreactors

  • Daviel Gómez
  • L.ázaro Hernández
  • Lourdes Yabor
  • Gerrit T. S. Beemster
  • Christoph C. Tebbe
  • Jutta Papenbrock
  • José Carlos LorenzoEmail author
Technical Note


Plant scientists usually record several indicators in their abiotic factor experiments. The common statistical management involves univariate analyses. Such analyses generally create a split picture of the effects of experimental treatments since each indicator is addressed independently. The Euclidean distance combined with the information of the control treatment could have potential as an integrating indicator. The Euclidean distance has demonstrated its usefulness in many scientific fields but, as far as we know, it has not yet been employed for plant experimental analyses. To exemplify the use of the Euclidean distance in this field, we performed an experiment focused on the effects of mannitol on sugarcane micropropagation in temporary immersion bioreactors. Five mannitol concentrations were compared: 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM. As dependent variables we recorded shoot multiplication rate, fresh weight, and levels of aldehydes, chlorophylls, carotenoids and phenolics. The statistical protocol which we then carried out integrated all dependent variables to easily identify the mannitol concentration that produced the most remarkable integral effect. Results provided by the Euclidean distance demonstrate a gradually increasing distance from the control in function of increasing mannitol concentrations. 200 mM mannitol caused the most significant alteration of sugarcane biochemistry and physiology under the experimental conditions described here. This treatment showed the longest statistically significant Euclidean distance to the control treatment (2.38). In contrast, 50 and 100 mM mannitol showed the lowest Euclidean distances (0.61 and 0.84, respectively) and thus poor integrated effects of mannitol. The analysis shown here indicates that the use of the Euclidean distance can contribute to establishing a more integrated evaluation of the contrasting mannitol treatments.


Abiotic factors Biostatistics Drought In vitro culture Saccharum 



This research was supported by the Institute of Botany (Leibniz University of Hannover, Germany), the Laboratory for Integrated Plant Physiology Research (University of Antwerp, Belgium), the Thünen Institute of Biodiversity (Braunschweig, Germany) and the Bioplant Centre (University of Ciego de Ávila, Cuba). Authors are grateful to Mrs. Bárbara Valle, Mrs. Julia Martínez, Mrs. Mariela Cid, Dr. Maritza Escalona and Dr. Martha Hernández for their important suggestions provided.

Author contributions

DG, LH, LY, GTSB, CCT, JP and JCL designed the biological and mathematical research; DG and LH conducted the experiment; DG, LH, LY, GTSB, CCT, JP and JCL wrote the paper; JCL had primary responsibility for the final content. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors do not have any conflict of interests.

Human and animal rights

This research did not involve experiments with human or animal participants.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.


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Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daviel Gómez
    • 1
  • L.ázaro Hernández
    • 1
  • Lourdes Yabor
    • 1
  • Gerrit T. S. Beemster
    • 2
  • Christoph C. Tebbe
    • 3
  • Jutta Papenbrock
    • 4
  • José Carlos Lorenzo
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory for Plant Breeding, Bioplant CenterUniversity of Ciego de AvilaCiego de ÁvilaCuba
  2. 2.Laboratory for Integrated Plant Physiology Research (IMPRES)University of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium
  3. 3.Thünen Institute of BiodiversityFederal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and FisheriesBrunswickGermany
  4. 4.Institute of BotanyLeibniz University HannoverHanoverGermany

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