Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 131, Issue 4, pp 633–640 | Cite as

Reproductive biology of the threatened Lilium pomponium (Liliaceae), a species endemic to Maritime and Ligurian Alps

  • Gabriele CasazzaEmail author
  • Angelino Carta
  • Paolo Giordani
  • Maria Guerrina
  • Lorenzo Peruzzi
  • Luigi Minuto
Regular Paper


Pollination ecology and breeding system of Lilium pomponium L. were studied, and their effect on the reproductive outcome was assessed. This species has high conservation interest in Europe, because it is included in Annex V of the EU Habitat Directive and it is one out of the five Lilium species listed in IUCN Global Red List. To achieve our aim, the pollen vectors as well as the effect of bagging, emasculation and artificial pollination on reproductive output were studied. The most frequent visitor was the Lepidopteran Gonepteryx rhamnii. In general, reproductive outputs were close to zero for all the self-pollination treatments; however, geitonogamy and facilitated selfing seem slightly more efficient than autogamy, as also confirmed by self-compatibility and autofertility indices. Altogether, our results suggest a self-incompatible outcrossing breeding system, with a poor capacity for selfing. Nevertheless, climate change and anthropic threats might promote a shift toward self-fertilization, even maladaptive, favouring the few individuals able to produce selfed seeds.


Conservation Pollen vectors Reproductive strategy Threatened species 



We are grateful to Simona Bonelli (Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin) and Loris Galli (DISTAV, University of Genoa) for insect identification. We thank Stefano Iardella, Carmelo Nicodemo Macrì, Elio Guerra and Luca Ulzi for their support in field and laboratory work.

Supplementary material

10265_2018_1019_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (78 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 78 KB)


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Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriele Casazza
    • 1
    Email author
  • Angelino Carta
    • 2
  • Paolo Giordani
    • 3
  • Maria Guerrina
    • 4
  • Lorenzo Peruzzi
    • 2
  • Luigi Minuto
    • 1
  1. 1.DISTAV, University of GenoaGenoaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Biology, Unit of BotanyUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  3. 3.DIFAR, University of GenoaGenoaItaly
  4. 4.Department of Ecology and GeneticsUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

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