Molecular characterisation of two novel starch granule proteins 1 in wild and cultivated diploid A genome wheat species
Starch synthase IIa, also known as starch granule protein 1 (SGP-1), plays a key role in amylopectin biosynthesis. The absence of SGP-1 in cereal grains is correlated to dramatic changes in the grains’ starch content, structure, and composition. An extensive investigation of starch granule proteins in this study revealed a polymorphism in the electrophoretic mobility of SGP-1 between two species of wheat, Triticum urartu and T. monococcum; this protein was, however, conserved among all other Triticum species that share the A genome inherited from their progenitor T. urartu. Two different electrophoretic profiles were identified: SGP-A1 proteins of T. urartu accessions had a SDS–PAGE mobility similar to those of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat species; conversely, SGP-A1 proteins of T. monococcum ssp. monococcum and ssp. boeoticum accessions showed a different electrophoretic mobility. The entire coding region of the two genes was isolated and sequenced in an attempt to explain the polymorphism identified. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) responsible for amino acid changes were identified, but no indel polymorphism was observed to explain the difference in electrophoretic mobility. Amylose content did not differ significantly among T. urartu, T. monococcum ssp. boeoticum and T. monococcum ssp. monococcum, except in one accession of the ssp. boeoticum. Conversely, several interspecific differences were observed in viscosity properties (investigated as viscosity profiles using a rapid visco analyzer—RVA profiles) of these cereal grains. T. monococcum ssp. boeoticum accessions had the lowest RVA profiles, T. urartu accessions had an intermediate RVA profile, whereas T. monococcum ssp. monococcum showed the highest RVA profile. These differences could be associated with the numerous amino acid and structural changes evident among the SGP-1 proteins.
KeywordsDiploid wheat Gel shifting Phylogenesis Polymorphism Starch granule proteins Starch synthase
Authors wish to thank Prof. Domenico Lafiandra for the critical revision of this manuscript.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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