Emerging roles of cortical microtubule–membrane interactions

Abstract

Plant cortical microtubules have crucial roles in cell wall development. Cortical microtubules are tightly anchored to the plasma membrane in a highly ordered array, which directs the deposition of cellulose microfibrils by guiding the movement of the cellulose synthase complex. Cortical microtubules also interact with several endomembrane systems to regulate cell wall development and other cellular events. Recent studies have identified new factors that mediate interactions between cortical microtubules and endomembrane systems including the plasma membrane, endosome, exocytic vesicles, and endoplasmic reticulum. These studies revealed that cortical microtubule-membrane interactions are highly dynamic, with specialized roles in developmental and environmental signaling pathways. A recent reconstructive study identified a novel function of the cortical microtubule-plasma membrane interaction, which acts as a lateral fence that defines plasma membrane domains. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of cortical microtubule-membrane interactions.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Abbreviations

CDZ:

Cortical division zone

CSC:

Cellulose synthase complex

cMT:

Cortical microtubule

MAP:

Microtubule-associated protein

MASC:

Microtubule-associated cellulose synthase compartment

MF:

Actin microfilament

MT:

Microtubule

PA:

Phosphatidic acid

PH:

Pleckstrin homology

PLD:

Phospholipase D

PM:

Plasma membrane

ROP:

Plant-specific Rho/Rac GTPase

SmaCC:

Small CESA compartment

TGN:

Trans-Golgi network

TTP:

TON1/TRM/PP2A

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by grants from MEXT KAKENHI (grant no. 16H01247 to YO) and JSPS KAKENHI (Grant no. 16H06172 to YO).

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Correspondence to Yoshihisa Oda.

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Oda, Y. Emerging roles of cortical microtubule–membrane interactions. J Plant Res 131, 5–14 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-017-0995-4

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Keywords

  • Rho-related GTPases from plants (ROP)
  • IQ67-domain 13 (IQD13)
  • Vesicle tethering (VETH)
  • Microtubule depletion domain 1 (MIDD1)
  • Cellulose synthase-microtubule uncoupling (CMU)
  • Kinesin