The origin of wild populations of Toxicodendron succedaneum on mainland Japan revealed by genetic variation in chloroplast and nuclear DNA
- 329 Downloads
Toxicodendron succedaneum: (L.) Kuntze is a tree cultivated for the production of sumac wax, which is extracted from the mesocarp. There are several hypotheses regarding the origin of T. succedaneum on mainland Japan. In this study, the geographical distribution of genetic variation in 13 wild populations on Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Ryukyu Islands, Japan was investigated and compared with that of individuals from continental Asia. Seven chloroplast DNA haplotypes of T. succedaneum were observed in Japan and could be divided into three lineages based on relatedness between haplotypes. One of these lineages was also observed in continental Asia, and the others were genetically distant from the haplotypes that originated on the continent, with one considered to have originated on the Ryukyu Islands, and the other on mainland Japan. The genetic diversity of both chloroplast and nuclear DNA was lower in populations from Ryukyu Islands than in populations from mainland Japan. Bayesian clustering based on nuclear genotypes showed a clear difference between the groups from Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Based on approximate Bayesian computation analysis of polymorphic data for both genomes, it was inferred that wild populations of T. succedaneum on mainland Japan consist of both lineages with natural distribution on mainland Japan and those introduced from Ryukyu Islands and continental Asia.
KeywordsApproximate Bayesian computation Artificial movement Chloroplast haplotype Cultivated tree Nuclear SSR marker
We are grateful to Drs. M. Suzuki and T. Tanaka for sampling the materials used in this study. We also thank Mr. M. Ogata, Mr. K. Miyahira, the members of the Kyushu Regional Breeding Office (Forest Tree Breeding Center), Fukuoka Prefecture and Chiba Prefecture, for their assistance in the field. We also thank Dr. K. Mishima and the members of the Forest Tree Breeding Center for their support with experiments. We also thank Drs. S. Shiraishi, M. Tamura, and M. Takahashi for helpful advice.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This research was supported by funds from the ordinary budget of the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (FFPRI).
- Barrett SCH (1998) The reproductive biology and genetics of island plants. In: Grand PR (ed) Evolution on islands. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 18–34Google Scholar
- Barton NH (1998) Natural selection and random genetic drift as causes of evolution on islands. In: Grand PR (ed) Evolution on islands. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 102–123Google Scholar
- Csilléry K, François O, Blum MGB (2012) abc: an R package for approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). Meth Ecol Evol 3:475–479Google Scholar
- Goudet J (2001) FSTAT, a program to estimate and test gene diversities and fixation indices (version 2.9.3). Available from http://www2.unil.ch/popgen/softwares/fstat.htm, March 25, 2017Google Scholar
- Hiraoka Y, Watanabe A (2011) Comparisons of chloroplast haplotypes in Toxicodendron succedaneum (L.) Kuntze among local cultivars and candidates for superior trees in Japan and wild individuals from the Asian Continent and Okinawa Island. J Jpn For Soc 93:200‒204 (in Japanese with English summary)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Iwatsuki K (1999) Anacardiaceae. In: Iwatsuki K, Boufford DE, Ohba H (eds) Flora of Japan, vol. IIc. Kodansha, Tokyo, pp 58–59Google Scholar
- Katsuta M (1998) Rhus Linn. (Sumac). In: Katsuta M, Mori T, Yokoyama T. Seed of forest tree in Japan [*in Japanese, the book title is a tentative translation by the author], Society of Forest Tree Breeding, Tokyo, pp 222–227Google Scholar
- Masaki Y (1938) Toxicodendron succedaneum and sumac wax in Japan [*in Japanese, title is a tentative translation by the author]. Meibundo, TokyoGoogle Scholar
- Nei M (1987) Molecular evolutionary genetics. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Noguchi K (1977) Development of Toxicodendron succedaneum cultivation and dispersion of elite cultivars in Japan [*in Japanese, title is a tentative translation by the author]. Rekishigaku Chirigaku Nenpo 1:1–24Google Scholar
- Plummer M, Best N, Cowles K, Vines K (2006) CODA: convergence diagnosis and output analysis for MCMC. R News 6:7–11Google Scholar
- Prichard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155:945–959Google Scholar
- R Core Team (2016) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
- Rozen S, Skaletsky HJ (2000) Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers. In: Krawetz S, Misener S (eds) Bioinformatics Methods and Protocols: Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press, Totowa, pp 365–386Google Scholar
- Sakaguchi S, Qiu Y-X, Liu Y-H, Qi X-S, Kim S-H, Han J, Takeuchi Y, Worth JRP, Yamasaki M, Sakurai S, Isagi Y (2012) Climate oscillation during the Quaternary associated with landscape heterogeneity promoted allopatric lineage divergence of a temperate tree Kalopanax septemlobus (Araliaceae) in East Asia. Mol Ecol 21:3823–3838CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shiraishi S, Watanabe A (1995) Identification of chloroplast genome between Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. and P. thunbergii Parl. based on the polymorphism in rbcL gene. J Jpn For Soc 77:429–436 (Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
- Tamaki I, Kuze T, Hirota K, Mizuno M (2016) Genetic variation and population demography of the landrace population of Camellia sinensis in Kasuga, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. Gen Res Crop Evol 63:823–831Google Scholar
- Weir BS, Cockerham CC (1984) Estimating F-statistics for the analysis of population structure. Evol Int J org Evol 38:1358–1370Google Scholar
- Zhai S-N, Comes HP, Nakamura K, Yan H-F, Qiu Y-X (2012) Late Pleistocene lineage divergence among populations of Neolitsea sericea (Lauraceae) across a deep sea-barrier in the Ryukyu Islands. J Biogeogr 39:1347—1360Google Scholar