Chloroplast aggregation during the cold-positioning response in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha
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Under low-light conditions, chloroplasts localize along periclinal cell walls at temperatures near 20 °C, but they localize along anticlinal cell walls near 5 °C. This phenomenon is known as the cold-positioning response. We previously showed that chloroplasts move as aggregates rather than individually during the cold-positioning response in the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris. This observation suggested that chloroplasts physically interact with each other during the cold-positioning response. However, the physiological processes underlying chloroplast aggregation are unclear. In this report, we characterized chloroplast aggregation during the cold-positioning response in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Confocal laser microscopy observations of transgenic liverwort plants expressing a fluorescent fusion protein that localizes to the chloroplast outer envelope membrane (OEP7-Citrine) showed that neighboring chloroplast membranes did not fuse during the cold-positioning response. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that a distance of at least 10 nm was maintained between neighboring chloroplasts during aggregation. These results indicate that aggregated chloroplasts do not fuse, but maintain a distance of at least 10 nm from each other during the cold-positioning response.
KeywordsBryophytes Chloroplast aggregation Chloroplast movement Low temperature Outer envelope membrane Temperature-controlled microscopy
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