Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 130, Issue 3, pp 571–585 | Cite as

Synthesis and degradation of long-chain base phosphates affect fumonisin B1-induced cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana

Regular Paper

Abstract

Fumonisin B1 (FB1), an inducer of cell death, disrupts sphingolipid metabolism; large accumulations of de novo synthesized free long-chain bases (LCBs) are observed. However, it remains unclear whether tolerance to FB1 toxicity in plants is connected with preventing the accumulation of free LCBs through their phosphorylation. Here a workflow for the extraction, detection and quantification of LCB phosphates (LCBPs) in Arabidopsis thaliana was developed. We studied the effect of expression of genes for three enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of LCBPs, LCB kinase (LCBK1), LCBP phosphatase (SPP1) and lyase (DPL1) on FB1-induced cell death. As expected, large accumulations of saturated free LCBs, dihydrosphingosine and phytosphingosine, were observed in the FB1-treated leaves. On the other hand, a high level of sphingenine phosphate was found in the FB1-treated leaves even though free sphingenine was found in low amounts in these leaves. In comparison of WT and spp1 plants, the LCBP/LCB ratio is likely to be correlated with the degree of FB1-induced cell death determined by trypan blue staining. The FB1-treated leaves in dpl1 plants showed severe cell death and the elevation of free LCBs and LCBPs. LCBK1-OX and -KD plants showed resistance and sensitivity to FB1, respectively, whereas free LCB and LCBP levels in FB1-treated LCBK1-OX and -KD plants were moderately different to those in FB1-treated WT plants. Overall, the findings described here suggest that LCBP/LCB homeostasis is an important topic that participates in the tolerance of plant cells to FB1.

Keywords

Fumonisin B1 Long-chain base kinase Long-chain base phosphates LC-MS/MS Sphingolipid catabolism 

Abbreviations

CaMV35S

Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S

Cer

Ceramide

DPL

LCBP lyase

d17:1

C17-E-4-sphingenine

d17:1-P

C17-E-4-sphingenine-1-phosphate

d18:0

Sphinganine (dihydrosphingosine)

d18:0-P

Sphinganine (dihydrosphingosine)-1-phosphate

d18:1(4E)

E-4-sphingenine (sphingosine)

d18:1(4E)-P

E-4-sphingenine (sphingosine)-1-phosphate

d18:1(8Z)

Z-8-sphingenine

d18:1(8Z)-P

Z-8-sphingenine-1-phosphate

d18:1(8E)

E-8-sphingenine

d18:1(8E)-P

E-8-sphingenine-1-phosphate

ESI

Electrospray ionization

FB1

Fumonisin B1

GlcCer

Glucosylceramide

GIPC

Glycosyl inositolphosphoceramide

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

HR

Hypersensitive response

LC

Liquid chromatography

LCB

Long-chain base

LCBP

Long-chain base 1-phosphate

LCBK

LCB kinase

MRM

Multiple reaction monitoring

MS/MS

Tandem mass spectrometry

NBD-F

4-fluoro-7-nitrobenzofurazan

ROI

Reactive oxygen intermediate

SPP

LCBP phosphatase

t18:0

4-hydroxy-sphinganine (phytosphingosine)

t18:0-P

4-hydroxy-sphinganine (phytosphingosine)-1-phosphate

t18:1(8Z)

4-hydroxy-Z-8-sphingenine

t18:1(8Z)-P

4-hydroxy-Z-8-sphingenine-1-phosphate

t18:1(8E)

4-hydroxy-E-8-sphingenine

t18:1(8E)-P

4-hydroxy-E-8-sphingenine-1-phosphate

WT

Wild type

Supplementary material

10265_2017_923_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1167 KB)

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Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer Japan 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daiki Yanagawa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Toshiki Ishikawa
    • 3
  • Hiroyuki Imai
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Graduate School of Natural ScienceKonan UniversityKobeJapan
  2. 2.The Institute for Integrative NeurobiologyKonan UniversityKobeJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Science and EngineeringSaitama UniversitySaitamaJapan

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