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The influence of slope on Spartium junceum root system: morphological, anatomical and biomechanical adaptation

Abstract

Root systems have a pivotal role in plant anchorage and their mechanical interactions with the soil may contribute to soil reinforcement and stabilization of slide-prone slopes. In order to understand the responses of root system to mechanical stress induced by slope, samples of Spartium junceum L., growing in slope and in plane natural conditions, were compared in their morphology, biomechanical properties and anatomical features. Soils sampled in slope and plane revealed similar characteristics, with the exception of organic matter content and penetrometer resistance, both higher in slope. Slope significantly influenced root morphology and in particular the distribution of lateral roots along the soil depth. Indeed, first-order lateral roots of plants growing on slope condition showed an asymmetric distribution between up- and down-slope. Contrarily, this asymmetric distribution was not observed in plants growing in plane. The tensile strength was higher in lateral roots growing up-slope and in plane conditions than in those growing down-slope. Anatomical investigations revealed that, while roots grown up-slope had higher area covered by xylem fibers, the ratio of xylem and phloem fibers to root diameter did not differ among the three conditions, as also, no differences were found for xylem fiber cell wall thickness. Roots growing up-slope were the main contributors to anchorage properties, which included higher strength and higher number of fibers in the xylematic tissues. Results suggested that a combination of root-specific morphological, anatomical and biomechanical traits, determines anchorage functions in slope conditions.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. Maria Sarnataro for the soil survey and classification, and for her help with the measurements of soil resistance to penetration. We also thank Dr. Solena Sciandra for her support in field activities and lab analyses. We gratefully acknowledge two anonymous reviewers for their comments that helped to improve the manuscript. This work was supported in part by grants from MIUR (PRIN 2008 n. 223 Project Coordinator Prof. D. Chiatante), the University of Insubria (FAR) and the EC FP7 Project ZEPHYR-308313. Particular thanks to Michela di Michele, for her precious support.

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Correspondence to Fabio Lombardi.

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Lombardi, F., Scippa, G.S., Lasserre, B. et al. The influence of slope on Spartium junceum root system: morphological, anatomical and biomechanical adaptation. J Plant Res 130, 515–525 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-017-0919-3

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-017-0919-3

Keywords

  • First-order lateral roots
  • Mechanical stresses
  • Slope condition
  • Tensile strength
  • Spartium junceum L.
  • Wood anatomy