Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 129, Issue 5, pp 873–881 | Cite as

Effect of epicuticular wax crystals on the localization of artificially deposited sub-micron carbon-based aerosols on needles of Cryptomeria japonica

  • Satoshi Nakaba
  • Kenichi Yamane
  • Mie Fukahori
  • Widyanto Dwi Nugroho
  • Masahiro Yamaguchi
  • Katsushi Kuroda
  • Yuzou Sano
  • I. Wuled Lenggoro
  • Takeshi Izuta
  • Ryo FunadaEmail author
Regular Paper


Elucidation of the mechanism of adsorption of particles suspended in the gas-phase (aerosol) to the outer surfaces of leaves provides useful information for understanding the mechanisms of the effect of aerosol particles on the growth and physiological functions of trees. In the present study, we examined the localization of artificially deposited sub-micron-sized carbon-based particles on the surfaces of needles of Cryptomeria japonica, a typical Japanese coniferous tree species, by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The clusters (aggregates) of carbon-based particles were deposited on the needle surface regions where epicuticular wax crystals were sparsely distributed. By contrast, no clusters of the particles were found on the needle surface regions with dense distribution of epicuticular wax crystals. Number of clusters of carbon-based particles per unit area showed statistically significant differences between regions with sparse epicuticular wax crystals and those with dense epicuticular wax crystals. These results suggest that epicuticular wax crystals affect distribution of carbon-based particles on needles. Therefore, densely distributed epicuticular wax crystals might prevent the deposition of sub-micron-sized carbon-based particles on the surfaces of needles of Cryptomeria japonica to retain the function of stomata.


Carbon-based particle Cryptomeria japonica Epicuticular wax crystal Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) Sub-micron-sized particle 



We thank Mr. Shin-ichi Sagawa, Dr. Masao Gen, and Ms. Fong Zyin Lim (Lenggoro lab), Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering (BASE), Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, for technical support related to exposure of substrates to carbon-based particles. This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (nos. 20120009, 20120010, 24380090, 25850121, 26420761, 15H04527 and 15K07508).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Satoshi Nakaba
    • 1
  • Kenichi Yamane
    • 1
  • Mie Fukahori
    • 1
  • Widyanto Dwi Nugroho
    • 1
    • 2
  • Masahiro Yamaguchi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Katsushi Kuroda
    • 4
  • Yuzou Sano
    • 5
  • I. Wuled Lenggoro
    • 6
  • Takeshi Izuta
    • 1
  • Ryo Funada
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculty of AgricultureTokyo University of Agriculture and TechnologyFuchuJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of ForestryUniversitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia
  3. 3.Graduate School of Fisheries Science and Environmental StudiesNagasaki UniversityNagasakiJapan
  4. 4.Forestry and Forest Products Research InstituteTsukubaJapan
  5. 5.Graduate School of AgricultureHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  6. 6.Department of Chemical EngineeringTokyo University of Agriculture and TechnologyKoganeiJapan

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