Advertisement

Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 129, Issue 5, pp 935–944 | Cite as

Gibberellin stimulates regrowth after defoliation of sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis) by regulating expression of fructan-related genes

  • Yueyue Cai
  • Linhui Shao
  • Xiuqing Li
  • Gongshe Liu
  • Shuangyan Chen
Regular Paper

Abstract

Gibberellins (GAs) affect forage growth and development; however, it is largely unknown how GAs regulate the metabolism of fructan (an important polysaccharide reserve in many cereals) and the regrowth of forage plants after defoliation. To explore the mechanism of the responses of defoliated sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel] to GA, we sprayed defoliated sheepgrass with GA3 and/or paclobutrazol (PAC; an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis) and analyzed the growth characteristics, carbohydrate contents, and transcript levels of genes related to GA metabolism, GA signal transduction, and fructan metabolism. The results showed that spraying exogenous GA3 onto defoliated sheepgrass promoted leaf and internode elongation, while spraying with PAC inhibited leaf and internode elongation, compared with the control. Spraying GA3 onto defoliated sheepgrass also altered the fructan content by extending the period of fructan utilization. At the transcriptional level, exogenous GA3 increased the transcript levels of genes related to GA metabolism in the sheath. Taken together, our results suggest that exogenous GA3 stimulates the regrowth of defoliated sheepgrass regrowth by regulating GA and fructan-related genes, and by promoting endogenous GA synthesis, fructan metabolism, and signaling.

Keywords

Leymus chinensis Defoliation Gibberellin Fructan Regrowth 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (“973”, 2014CB138704), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31470411), and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (“863”, 2011AA100209).

Supplementary material

10265_2016_832_MOESM1_ESM.doc (151 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 151 kb)

References

  1. Achard P, Genschik P (2009) Releasing the brakes of plant growth: how GAs shutdown DELLA proteins. J Exp Bot 60:1085–1092CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Annette MB, Boucaud J, Saos JL, Prudhomme MP (2001) Roles of the fructans from leaf sheaths and from the elongating leaf bases in the regrowth following defoliation of Lolium perenne L. Planta 213:109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Appleford NEJ, Evans DJ, Lenton JR, Gaskin P, Croker SJ, Devos K, Phillips AL, Hedden P (2006) Function and transcript analysis of gibberellin-biosynthetic enzymes in wheat. Planta 223:568–582CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Berthier A, Desclos M, Amiard V, Morvan-Bertrand A, Demmig-Adams B, Adams WW, Turgeon R, Prud’homme MP, Noiraud-Romy N (2009) Activation of sucrose transport in defoliated Lolium perenne L.: an example of apoplastic phloem loading plasticity. Plant Cell Physiol 50:1329–1344CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen SY, Cai YY, Zhang LX, Yan XQ, Cheng LQ, Qi DM, Zhou QY, Li XX, Liu GS (2014) Transcriptome analysis reveals common and distinct mechanisms for sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis) responses to defoliation compared to mechanical wounding. PLoS One 9:e89495CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Elliott RC, Smith JL, Lester DR, Reid JB (2001) Feed-forward regulation of gibberellin deactivation in pea. J Plant Growth Regul 20:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Furet PM, Berthier A, Decau ML, Morvan-Bertrand A, Prud’homme MP, Noiraud-Romy N, Meuriot F (2012) Differential regulation of two sucrose transporters by defoliation and light conditions in perennial ryegrass. Plant Physiol Biochem 61:88–96CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hendry GAF (1993) Evolutionary origins and natural functions of fructans: a climatological, biogeography and mechanistic appraisal. New Phytol 123:3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lasseur A, Lothier J, Morvan-Bertrand A, Escobar-Guttierez A, Humphreys MO, Prud’homme MP (2007) Impact of defoliation frequency on regrowth and carbohydrate metabolism in contrasting varieties of Lolium perenne. Funct Plant Biol 34:418–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Le Guen-Le Saos F, Hourmant A, Esnault F, Chauvin JE (2002) In vitro bulb development in shallot (Allium cepa L. aggregatum group): effects of anti-gibberellins, sucrose and light. Ann Bot 89:419–425CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Lee JM, Donaghy DJ, Sathish P, Roche JR (2010) Perennial ryegrass regrowth after defoliation—physiological and molecular changes. Proc N Z Grassl Assoc 72:127–134Google Scholar
  12. Lee JM, Sathish P, Donaghy DJ, Roche JR (2011) Impact of defoliation severity on photosynthesis, carbon metabolism and transport gene expression in perennial ryegrass. Funct Plant Biol 38:808–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Li TH, Li SH (2005) Leaf responses of micropropagated apple plants to water stress: nonstructural carbohydrate composition and regulatory role of metabolic enzymes. Tree Physiol 25:495–504CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Livingston DP III, Hincha DK, Heyer AG (2009) Fructan and its relationship to abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Cell Mol Life Sci 66:2007–2023CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Maleux K, Van den Ende W (2007) Levans in excised leaves of Dactylis glomerata: effects of temperature, light, sugars, and senescence. J. Plant Biol. 50:671–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Morvan A, Challe G, Prud’homme MP, Saos J, Boucaud J (1997) Rise of fructan exohydrolase activity in stubble of Lolium perenne after defoliation is decreased by uniconazole, an inhibitor of the biosynthesis of gibberellins. New Phytol 136:81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Morvan-Bertrand A, Boucaud J, Prud’homme MP (1999) Influence of initial levels of carbohydrates, fructans, nitrogen, and soluble proteins on regrowth of Lolium perenne L. cv. Bravo following defoliation. J Exp Bot 50:1817–1826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Morvan-Bertrand A, Ernstsen A, Lindgard B, Koshioka M, Saos JL, Boucaud J, Prud’homme MP, Junttila O (2001) Endogenous gibberellins in Lolium perenne and influence of defoliation on their contents in elongating leaf bases and in leaf sheaths. Physiol Plant 111:225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ribeiro DM, Araujo WL, Fernie AR, Schippers JHM, Mueller-Roeber B (2012a) Translatome and metabolome effects triggered by gibberellins during rosette growth in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot 63:2769–2786CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Ribeiro DM, Araujo WL, Fernie AR, Schippers JHM, Mueller-Roeber B (2012b) Action of gibberellins on growth and metabolism of Arabidopsis plants associated with high concentration of carbon dioxide. Plant Physiol 160:1781–1794CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Ritsema T, Smeekens S (2003) Fructans: beneficial for plants and humans. Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:223–230CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Schomburg FM, Bizzell CM, Lee DJ, Zeevaart JAD, Amasino RM (2003) Overexpression of a novel class of gibberellin 2-oxidases decreases gibberellin levels and creates dwarf plants. Plant Cell 15:151–163CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Su M, Li XX, Li XF, Cheng LQ, Qi DM, Chen SY, Liu GS (2013) Molecular characterization and defoliation-induced expression of a sucrose transporter LcSUT1 gene in sheep grass (Leymus chinensis). Plant Mol Biol Rep 31:1184–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tamura K, Sanada Y, Tase K, Komatsu T, Yoshida M (2011) Pp6-FEH1 encodes an enzyme for degradation of highly polymerized levan and is transcriptionally induced by defoliation in timothy (Phleum pratense L.). J Exp Bot 62:3421–3431CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Yamamoto S, Mino Y (1989) Mechanism of phleinase induction in the stem base of orchardgrass after defoliation. J Plant Physiol 134:258–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yamamoto S, Mino Y (1998) Effect of exogenous plant bioactive substances on phleinase induction in stem base of orchardgrass. Grassland Science 43:380–384Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of BotanyThe Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Institute of Animal Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Potato Research CentreAgriculture and Agri-Food CanadaFrederictonCanada

Personalised recommendations