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Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 128, Issue 5, pp 747–761 | Cite as

First occurrence of Cedrelospermum (Ulmaceae) in Asia and its biogeographic implications

  • Lin-Bo Jia
  • Steven R. Manchester
  • Tao Su
  • Yao-Wu Xing
  • Wen-Yun Chen
  • Yong-Jiang Huang
  • Zhe-Kun Zhou
Regular Paper

Abstract

Cedrelospermum (Ulmaceae) is an extinct genus with extensive fossil records in Europe and North America. However, no fossil of the genus has been reported from Asia. Here we describe Cedrelospermum asiaticum L.B. Jia, Y.J. Huang et Z.K. Zhou sp. nov. based on compressed fruits from the late Miocene of Yunnan, southwestern China. The fossil fruits are characterized by an ovate fruit body adjoined by double wings, with the veins on the primary wing converging toward a stigmatic area. According to the historical geographic distribution of the genus, we hypothesize that Cedrelospermum originated in North America where both single-winged and double-winged fruits were reported. The single-winged form subsequently spread into Europe via the North Atlantic land bridge and the double-winged form dispersed into Asia via the Bering land bridge. From the Eocene to Oligocene, a southward retreat of the genus distribution probably took place, which coincided with the global surface cooling initiated during the Eocene–Oligocene transition. The extinction of Cedrelospermum from Asia may be related to the intensification of the East Asian monsoon.

Keywords

Asia Biogeography Cedrelospermum Miocene Monsoon Ulmaceae 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Dr. Hongshan Wang for compiling the North American fossil records; Dr. Shitao Zhang for study on geological horizon; Dr. Frédéric M.B. Jacques for improving the figures; Dr. Jianwei Zhang, Shufeng Li, He Xu and Honghu Meng for technical assistance with software; Julie Lebreton-Anberrée for giving comments on the geological setting and polishing the manuscript; Dr. Sergio R.S. Cevallos-Ferriz for providing the isotope dating age for the flora of the Pié de Vaca Formation, Puebla, Mexico; Dr. Arata Momohara and Dr. Sergei Vikulin for providing references; members of the Paleoecology Research Group in Kunming institute of Botany, CAS for help with field work; the two anonymous reviewers for improving the manuscript. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41372035) and the National Key Basic Research Project (“973” Project, No. 2012CB821900). This work is a contribution to NECLIME (Neogene Climate Evolution in Eurasia).

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Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer Japan 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lin-Bo Jia
    • 1
    • 5
  • Steven R. Manchester
    • 3
  • Tao Su
    • 2
  • Yao-Wu Xing
    • 4
  • Wen-Yun Chen
    • 1
  • Yong-Jiang Huang
    • 1
  • Zhe-Kun Zhou
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of BotanyChinese Academy of SciencesKunmingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical GardenChinese Academy of SciencesMenglaChina
  3. 3.Florida Museum of Natural HistoryUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  4. 4.Botany DepartmentField Museum of Natural HistoryChicagoUSA
  5. 5.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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