Phylogenetic relationship and molecular taxonomy of African grasses of the genus Panicum inferred from four chloroplast DNA-barcodes and nuclear gene sequences
- 794 Downloads
The genus Panicum s.l. comprises about 450 grass species in which the C4 and the C3 metabolic pathways of photosynthesis are realized. In the West African savannah, Panicum spp. and closely related taxa dominate the landscape, with species differentially adapted to drought conditions. We obtained four chloroplast DNA barcode sequences, rbcL, matK, ndhF and trnH-psbA intergenic region, for nine Panicum spp. with a focus on West African species, and we performed maximum likelihood analysis to infer their phylogenetic relationship. Furthermore the phylogenetic placement of five newly sequenced taxa was achieved using a published phylogeny of more than 300 Panicoids based on ndhF sequences. The comparison of the resulting phylogenetic tree constructed from a combination of all four barcode sequences with the one based on rbcL and matK showed that the latter combination of the two, is sufficient for the analysis. A tree constructed from amino acid sequences derived from isolated cDNAs of the nucleus-encoded phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase displayed a similar topology. All ppc-sequences could be annotated to either ppc-B2 or ppc-aR. Moreover the inclusion of the West African Panicum species in an extensive dataset of Panicoids supports the proposition that within the subtribe Panicinae only the NAD-malic enzyme type of C4 photosynthesis is present.
KeywordsDNA-barcode ndhF Panicum Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase Phylogeny
The present study was funded by the research funding programme “LOEWE—Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung Wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz” of Hesse’s Ministry of Higher Education, Research, and the Arts and the Stiftung Polytechnische Gesellschaft Frankfurt am Main. We greatly appreciate valuable comments of one anonymous reviewer to improve the manuscript.
- Blaesing OE, Westhoff P, Svensson P (2000) Evolution of C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in Flaveria, a conserved Serine residue in the carboxyl-terminal part of the enzyme is a major determinant for C4-specific characteristics. J Biol Chem 275:27917–27923Google Scholar
- Drummond AJ, Ashton B, Buxton S, Cheung M, Cooper A, Duran C, Field M, Heled J, Kearse M, Markowitz S, Moir R, Stones-Havas S, Sturrock S, Thierer T, Wilson A (2011) Geneious v5.4. Available from http://www.geneious.com
- Hély C, Bremond L, Alleaume S, Smith B, Sykes MT, Guiot J (2006) Sensitivity of african biomes to changes in the precipitation regime. Global Ecol Biogeogr 15:258–270Google Scholar
- IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Larkin MA, Blackshields G, Brown NP, Chenna R, McGettigan PA, McWilliam H, Valentin F, Wallace IM, Wilm A, Lopez R, Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Higgins DG (2007) Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0 Bioinfo 23:2947–2948Google Scholar
- Morrone O, Aagesen L, Scataglini MA, Salariato DL, Denham SS, Chemisquy MA, Sede SM, Giussani LM, Kellogg EA, Zuloaga FO (2012) Phylogeny of the Paniceae (Poaceae: Panicoideae): integrating plastid DNA sequences and morphology into a new classification. Cladistics. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00384.x Google Scholar
- Zuloaga FO, Scataglini MA, Morrone O (2010) A phylogenetic evaluation of Panicum sects. Agrostoidea, Megista, Prionitia and Tenera (Panicoideae, Poaceae): two new genera, Stephostachys and Sorengia. Taxon 59:1535–1546Google Scholar