Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 126, Issue 3, pp 351–361 | Cite as

Polyphyly of the Padus group of Prunus (Rosaceae) and the evolution of biogeographic disjunctions between eastern Asia and eastern North America

  • Xiao-Lin Liu
  • Jun WenEmail author
  • Ze-Long Nie
  • Gabriel Johnson
  • Zong-Suo LiangEmail author
  • Zhao-Yang Chang
Regular paper


Prunus subgenus Padus is a group with a wide distribution in temperate eastern Asia and eastern North America with one species extending to Europe and one to Central America. Phylogenetic relationships of subgenus Padus were reconstructed using sequences of nuclear ribosomal ITS, and plastid ndhF gene, and rps16 intron and rpl16 intron. Prunus subgenus Padus is shown to be polyphyletic. Taxa of subgenus Padus and subgenus Laurocerasus are highly intermixed in both the ITS and the plastid trees. The results support two disjunctions between eastern North America and Eurasia within the Padus group. One disjunction is between Prunus virginiana of eastern North America and P. padus of Eurasia, estimated to have diverged at 2.99 (95 % HPD 0.59–6.15)–4.1 (95 % HPD 0.63–8.59) mya. The other disjunction is between P. serotina and its Asian relatives. The second disjunction may have occurred earlier than the former one, but the age estimate is difficult due to the unresolved phylogenetic position of the P. serotina complex.


Biogeography Asian–North American disjunction Padus Phylogeny Prunus Rosaceae 



We thank John Clark, Tao Deng, Michael Dillon, Steve Ginzsbarg, Ruth Kiew, Sue Lutz, Ying Meng, Michael Nee, Elizabeth Widjaja, Tingshuang Yi, Tze Leung Yao, and Zhuo Zhou for assistance in obtaining samples and/or field assistance. The study was supported by the China Scholarship Council, the National Science Foundation (NSF Award number DEB 0515431), the Natural Science Foundation of China (Project no. 30625004 to J. Wen and T. Yi), the Smithsonian Endowment Program, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 31129001), and the Laboratory of Analytical Biology of the National Museum of Natural History, the Smithsonian Institution. Staff of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University kindly provided samples for the study.

Supplementary material

10265_2012_535_MOESM1_ESM.doc (186 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 186 kb)


  1. Benedict JC, DeVore ML, Pigg KB (2011) Prunus and Oemleria (Rosaceae) flowers from the late early Eocene republic flora of northwestern Washington State, USA. Int J Pl Sci 172:948–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bortiri ES, Oh H, Jiang JG, Baggett S, Granger A, Weeks C, Buckingham M, Potter D, Parfitt DE (2001) Phylogeny and systematics of Prunus (Rosaceae) as determined by sequence analysis of ITS and the chloroplast trnL-trnF spacer DNA. Syst Bot 26:797–807Google Scholar
  3. Bortiri ES, Oh H, Gao F-Y, Potter D (2002) The phylogenetic utility of nucleotide sequences of sorbitol 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in Prunus (Rosaceae). Am J Bot 89:1697–1708PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bortiri ES, Vanden B, Potter D (2006) Phylogenetic analysis of morphology in Prunus reveals extensive homoplasy. Pl Syst Evol 259:53–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chaney RW (1947) Tertiary centers and migration routes. Ecol Monogr 17:140–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chin SW, Wen J, Johnson G, Potter D (2010) Merging Maddenia with the morphologically diverse Prunus (Rosaceae). Bot J Linn Soc 164:236–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. de Tournefort JP (1700) Institutiones Rei Herbariae, Typograhia Regia, ParisGoogle Scholar
  8. DeVore ML, Pigg KB (2007) A brief review of the fossil history of the family Rosaceae with a focus on the Eocene Okanogan Highlands of eastern Washington State, USA, and British Columbia, Canada. Pl Syst Evol 266:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Drummond AJ, Rambaut A (2007) BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees. BMC Evol Biol 7:214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Drummond AJ, Ho SYW, Phillips MJ, Rambaut A (2006) Relaxed phylogenetics and dating with confidence. PLoS Biol 4:699–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Farris JS, Kallersjo M, Kluge AG, Bult C (1994) Testing significance of incongruence. Cladistics 10:315–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Focke WO (1894) Rosaceae. In: Engler A, Prantl K (eds) Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien nebst ihren Gattungen und wichtigeren Arten insbesondere den Nutzpflanzen unter Mitwirkung zahlreicher hervorragender Fachgelehrten, vol 3, No. 3. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, pp 1–61Google Scholar
  14. Geng BY, Tao JR, Xie GP (2001) Early Tertiary fossil plants and paleoclimate of Lanzhou basin. Acta Phytotax Sin 39:105–115Google Scholar
  15. Hiraishi A, Kamagata Y, Nakamura K (1995) Polymerase chain reaction amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA genes from methanogens. J Ferment Bioeng 79:523–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Iwatsubo Y, Kawasaki T, Naruhashi N (2002) Chromosome numbers of 193 cultivated taxa of Prunus. J Phytogeogr Taxon 50:21–34Google Scholar
  17. Iwatsubo Y, Sengi Y, Naruhashi N (2004) Chromosome numbers of 36 cultivated taxa of Prunus subg. Cerasus in Japan. Taxon 52:73–76Google Scholar
  18. Iwatsuki K, Ohba H (1994) The floristic relationship between East Asia and eastern North America. In: Miyawaki A, Iwatsuki K, Grandtner MM (eds) Vegetation in eastern North America. Univ. Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 61–74Google Scholar
  19. Kalkman C (1965) The Old Worlds species of Prunus subgen. Laurocerasus including those formerly referred to Pygeum. Blumea 13:1–115Google Scholar
  20. Koehne E (1893) Deutsche Dendrologie. Verlag von Ferdinand Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  21. Koehne E (1911) Die Gliederung von Prunus subgen. Padus. Abhandl Bot Ver Brandenburg 52:101–108Google Scholar
  22. Koehne E (1915) Zur Kenntnis von Prunus Grex Calycopadus und Grex Gymnopadus sect. Laurocerasus. Bot Jahrb 52:279–333Google Scholar
  23. Komarov L (1971) Rosaceae: Rosoideae, Amygdaloideae. In: Flora of the U.S.S.R, English translation, vol 10. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, pp 1–512Google Scholar
  24. Kress WJ, Penev L (2011) Innovative electronic publication in plant systematics: PhytoKeys and the changes to the “Botanical Code” accepted at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne. PhytoKeys 6:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lee S, Wen J (2001) A phylogenetic analysis of Prunus and the Amygdaloideae (Rosaceae) using ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Am J Bot 88:150–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Li HL (1952) Floristic relationships between eastern Asia and eastern North America. Am Phil Soc 42:371–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li Y, Smith T, Liu C-J, Awasthi N, Yang J, Wang Y-F, Li C-S (2011) Endocarps of Prunus (Rosaceae: Prunoideae) from the early Eocene of Wutu, Shandong Province, China. Taxon 60:555–564Google Scholar
  28. Linnaeus C (1754) Genera plantarum, 5th edn, Weinhein/Bergstr, HR Englemann (J Cramer), New York, Hafner Pub CoGoogle Scholar
  29. Lu LL, Gu CZ, Li CL, Alexander C, Batholomew B, Brach AR, Boufford DE, Ikeda H, Ohba H, Robertson KR, Spongberg S (2003) Rosaceae. In: Wu ZY, Raven PH, Hong DY (eds) Flora of China, vol 9. Science Press, Beijing and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, pp 46–434Google Scholar
  30. Magallón S, Castillo A (2009) Angiosperm diversification through time. Am J Bot 96:349–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McKenna MC (1975) Fossil mammals and early Eocene North Atlantic land continuity. Ann Missouri Bot Gard 62:335–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McKenna MC (1983) Cenozoic paleogeography of North Atlantic land bridges. In: Bott MHP, Saxov S, Talwani M, Thiede J (eds) Structure and development of the Greenland–Scotland ridge. Plenum Press, New York, pp 351–399Google Scholar
  33. McVaugh R (1951) A revision of the North America black cherries (Prunus serrotina Ehrh, and relatives). Brittonia 7:279–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McVaugh R (1952) Suggested phylogeny of Prunus serotina and other wide-ranging phylads in North America. Brittonia 7:317–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mehra PN, Sareen TS, Hans AS (1973) Cytology of some woody species of Rosaceae from the Himalayas. Silvae Genet 22:188–190Google Scholar
  36. Miller P (1754) The gardener’s dictionary, 4th edn, John and James Rivington, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Miquel FAG (1865–1867) Prolusio florae Japonicae. In: Miquel, Annales Musei Botanici Lugduno-Bataui, Vol 2, Amstelodami, pp. 69–212, 257–300Google Scholar
  38. Mohr C (1899) Notes on some new and little known plants of the Alabama flora. Bull Torrey Bot Club 26:118–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ohta S, Yamamoto T, Nishitani C, Katsuki T, Iketani H, Omura M (2007) Phylogenetic relationship among Japanese flowering cherries (Prunus subgenus Cerasus) based on nucleotide sequences of chloroplast DNA. Pl Syst Evol 263:209–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Olmstead RG, Sweere JA (1994) Combining data in phylogenetic systematics: an empirical approach using three molecular data sets in the Solabaceae. Syst Biol 43:467–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Posada D, Buckley TR (2004) Model selection and model averaging in phylogenetics: advantages of Akaike information criterion and Bayesian approaches over likelihood ratio tests. Syst Biol 53:793–808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Posada D, Crandall KA (1998) Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 14:817–818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Potter D, Eriksson T, Evans RC, Oh S, Smedmark JEE, Morgan DR, Kerr M, Robertson KR, Arsenault M, Dickinson TA, Campbell CS (2007) Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae. Pl Syst Evol 266:5–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rambaut A (2007) Se-Al: sequence alignment editor, version 2.0a11.
  45. Rambaut A, Drummond AJ (2007) Tracer version 1.5.
  46. Rannala B, Yang Z (1996) Probability distribution of molecular evolutionary trees: a new method of phylogenetic inference. J Mol Evol 43:304–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rehder A (1940) A manual of cultivated trees and shrubs hardy in North America exclusive of the subtropical and warmer temperate regions, 2nd edn. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Robertson KR (1974) The genera of Rosaceae in the southeastern United States. J Arnold Arbor 55:344–401Google Scholar
  49. Roemer MJ (1847) Familiarumn aturaliumr egni vegetabilis synopses monographicae, vol 4, Landes-Industrie-comptoir, WeimarGoogle Scholar
  50. Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP (2003) Mrbayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19:1572–1574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shaw J, Small RL (2004) Addressing the “hardest puzzle in American pomology”: phylogeny of Prunus sect. Prunocerasus (Rosaceae) based on seven noncoding chloroplast DNA regions. Am J Bot 91:985–996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shaw J, Small RL (2005) Chloroplast DNA phylogeny and phylogeography of the North American plums (Prunus subgenus Prunus section Prunocerasus, Rosaceae). Am J Bot 92:2011–2030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Suzuki M (1984) Some fossil woods from the Palaeogene of northern Kyushu, III. Bot Mag Tokyo 97:457–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Swofford DL (2003) PAUP: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (and other methods). Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  55. Takahashi A, Suuzki M (1988) Two new fossil woods of Acer and a new combination of Prunus from the tertiary of Japan. Bot Mag Tokyo 101:473–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Takhtajan AL (1987) Systema Magnoliophytorum. Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R, LeningradGoogle Scholar
  57. Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Eanmougin F, Higgins DG (1997) The ClustalX Windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucl Acids Res 24:4876–4882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tiffney BH (1985a) The Eocene North Atlantic land bridge: its importance in Tertiary and modern phytogeography of the northern hemisphere. J Arnold Arbor 66:243–273Google Scholar
  59. Tiffney BH (1985b) Perspectives on the origin of the floristic similarity between Eastern Asia and eastern North America. J Arnold Arbor 66:73–94Google Scholar
  60. Watkins R (1976) Cherry, plum, peach, apricot and almond. In: Simmons NW (ed) Evolution of crop plants. Longman, London, pp 242–247Google Scholar
  61. Weakley AS (2006) Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia and surrounding areas [draft]. University of North Carolina Herbarium, Chapel HillGoogle Scholar
  62. Webb DA (1968) Prunus. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA (eds) Flora Europaea, vol 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 77–80Google Scholar
  63. Wen J (1998) Evolution of the eastern Asian and eastern North American disjunct pattern: insights from phylogenetic studies. Korean J Plant Taxon 28:63–81Google Scholar
  64. Wen J (1999) Evolution of eastern Asian and eastern North American disjunct distributions in flowering plants. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 30:421–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wen J (2001) Evolution of eastern Asian and eastern North American biogeographic pattern: a few additional issues. Int J Pl Sci 162:S117–S122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wen J, Zimmer EA (1996) Phylogeny and biogeography of Panax L. (the ginseng genus, Araliaceae): inferences from ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Mol Phylogenet Evol 6:166–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wen J, Berggren ST, Lee CH, Ickert-Bond S, Yoo K-O, Xie L, Shaw J, Potter D (2008) Phylogenetic inferences in Prunus (Rosaceae) using chloroplast ndhF and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences. J Syst Evol 46:322–332Google Scholar
  68. Wen J, Ickert-Bond S, Nie ZL, Li R (2010) Timing and modes of evolution of eastern Asian—North American biogeographic disjunctions in seed plants. In: Long M, Gu H, Zhou Z (eds) Darwin’s heritage today: proceedings of the Darwin 200 Beijing international conference. Higher Education Press, Beijing, pp 252–269Google Scholar
  69. Wheeler EA, Richard RA, Barghoorn ES (1978) Fossil dicotyledonous woods from Yellowstone National Park II. J Arnold Arbor 59:1–31Google Scholar
  70. Wolfe JA (1972) An interpretation of Alaskan Tertiary floras. In: Graham A (eds) Floristics and paleoflorostics of Asia and eastern North America. Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, pp 201–233Google Scholar
  71. Yü TT, Lu LT, Ku TC, Li CL, Chen SX (1986) Rosaceae 4. Prunoideae Focke. In: Yü TT (ed) Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae, vol 38. Science Press, Beijing, pp 1–133Google Scholar
  72. Zhang SY (1992) Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae. Blumea 37:81–158Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer Japan 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Life ScienceNorthwest Agriculture and Forest UniversityYanglingChina
  2. 2.Department of BotanyNational Museum of Natural History, MRC 166, Smithsonian InstitutionWashington, DCUSA
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Plant Biodiversity and Biogeography, Kunming Institute of BotanyChinese Academy of SciencesKunmingChina

Personalised recommendations