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Comparative phylogeography of four component species of deciduous broad-leaved forests in Japan based on chloroplast DNA variation

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Abstract

A phylogeographic study of four tree species (Padus grayana, Euonymus oxyphyllus, Magnolia hypoleuca, and Carpinus laxiflora) growing in Japanese deciduous broad-leaved forests was conducted based on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variations. Using nucleotide sequences of 702–1,059 bp of intergenic spacers of cpDNA, 20, 27, eight, and eight haplotypes were detected among 251, 251, 226, and 262 individuals sampled from 67, 79, 75, and 71 populations of the above species, respectively. The geographical pattern of the cpDNA variations was highly structured in each species, and the following three regional populations were genetically highly differentiated among all four species: (1) the Sea of Japan-side area, (2) the Kanto region, and (3) southwestern Japan. Based on some interspecific similarities among the phylogeographic patterns, the following migration scenario of Japanese deciduous broad-leaved forests was postulated. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), the forests were separately distributed in six regions. After LGM, as the climate warmed, the forests in eastern Japan separately expanded from each of the refugia along the Sea of Japan-side or along the Pacific Ocean-side. In contrast, those in southwestern Japan retreated and moved to high altitudes from each of the continuous forests.

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Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Noriyuki Fujii, Dr. Naoki Nishimura, Dr. Koji Yonekura, Mr. Kozo Shibata, Dr. Tomoko Fukuda, Dr. Wataru Shinohara, Dr. Hirotoshi Sato, Dr. Hiroaki Setoguchi, Dr. Makoto Mochida, Mr. Tomoki Kadokawa and Dr. Hiroshi Ikeda for their assistance with the collection of plant materials. We also thank Dr. Takashi Sugawara, Dr. Hidetoshi Kato, Mrs. Saeko Kato, Dr. Ikuyo Saeki, Dr. Yasuyuki Watano, Dr. Vatanaparast Mohammad, and anonymous reviewers for their valuable advices. This study was partly supported by Research Project ‘A new cultural and historical exploration into human-nature relationships in the Japanese archipelago’ of the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature and Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows 19-5749 to TI.

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Iwasaki, T., Aoki, K., Seo, A. et al. Comparative phylogeography of four component species of deciduous broad-leaved forests in Japan based on chloroplast DNA variation. J Plant Res 125, 207–221 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-011-0428-8

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