Skip to main content

Sugar-induced adventitious roots in Arabidopsis seedlings

Abstract

The effects of sugars on root growth and on development of adventitious roots were analyzed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Seeds were sown on agar plates containing 0.0–5.0% sugars and placed vertically in darkness (DD) or under long day (LD, 16 h:8 h) conditions, so that the seedlings were constantly attached to the agar medium. In the sucrose-supplemented medium, seedlings showed sustained growth in both DD and LD. However, only dark-grown seedlings developed adventitious roots from the elongated hypocotyl. The adventitious roots began to develop 5 days after imbibition and increased in number until day 11. They could, however, be initiated at any position along the hypocotyl, near the cotyledon or the primary root. They were initiated in the pericycle in the same manner as ordinary lateral roots. Sucrose, glucose and fructose greatly stimulated the induction of adventitious roots, but mannose or sorbitol did not. Sucrose at concentrations of 0.5–2.0% was most effective in inducing adventitious roots, although 5.0% sucrose suppressed induction. Direct contact of the hypocotyl with the sugar-supplemented agar medium was indispensable for the induction of adventitious roots.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1a–d.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3a–e.
Fig. 4a, b.
Fig. 5a–c.
Fig. 6.

References

  • Ahmad M, Cashmore AR (1993) HY4 gene of A. thaliana encodes a protein with characteristics of a blue-light photoreceptor. Nature 366:162–166

    Google Scholar 

  • Andersen AS (1986) Environmental influences on adventitious rooting in cuttings of non-woody species. In: Jackson MB (ed) New root formation in plants and cuttings. Nijhoff, Hingham, Mass., pp 223–253

  • Bingham IJ, Stevenson EA (1993) Control of root growth: effects of carbohydrates on the extension, branching and rate of respiration of different fractions of wheat roots. Physiol Plant 88:149–158

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brown RM Jr, Montezinos D (1976) Cellulose microfibrils; visualization of biosynthetic orienting complexes in association with plasma membrane. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73:143–147

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cano-Delgado AI, Metzlaff K, Bevan MW (2000) The eli1 mutation reveals a link between cell expansion and secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Development 127:3395–3405

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Charlton WA (1996) Lateral root initiation. In: Waisel Y, Eshel A, Kafkafi U (eds) Plant roots: the hidden half. Dekker, New York, pp 149–173

    Google Scholar 

  • Cheng B, Peterson CM, Mitchell RJ (1992) The role of sucrose, auxin and explant source on in vitro rooting of seedling explants of Eucalyptus sideroxylon. Plant Sci 87:207–214

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Davis TD, Potter JR (1981) Current photosynthate as a limiting factor in adventitious root formation on leafy pea cuttings. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 106:278–282

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Delmer DP (1999) Cellulose biosynthesis: exciting times for a difficult field of study. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:245–276

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Eliasson L (1980) Interaction of light and auxin in regulation of rooting in pea stem cuttings. Physiol Plant 48:78–82

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Furuichi T, Mori IC, Takahashi K, Muto S (2001) Sugar-induced increase in cytosolic Ca2+ in Arabidopsis thaliana whole plants. Plant Cell Physiol 42:1149–1155

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gifford RM, Evans LT (1981) Photosynthesis, carbon partitioning, and yield. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 32:485–509

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Halford NG, Purcell PC, Hardie DG (1999) Is hexokinase really a sugar sensor in plants? Trends Plant Sci 4:117–120

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jang J-C, Leon P, Zhou L, Sheen J (1997) Hexokinase as a sugar sensor in higher plants. Plant Cell 9:5–19

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jarvis BC (1986) Endogenous control of adventitious rooting in non-woody cuttings. In: Jackson MB (ed) New root formation in plants and cuttings. Nijhoff, Hingham, Mass., pp 191–222

  • King JJ, Stimart DP (1998) Genetic analysis of variation for auxin-induced adventitious root formation among eighteen ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. J Hered 89:481–487

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kobayashi K, Takahashi F, Suzuki M, Suzuki H (2002) Examination of morphological changes in the first formed protoxylem in Arabidopsis seedlings. J Plant Res 115:107–112

    Google Scholar 

  • Kurata T, Yamamoto KT (1997) Light-stimulated root elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Plant Physiol 151:346–351

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kurata T, Yamamoto KT (1998) petit1, a conditional growth mutant of Arabidopsis defective sucrose-dependent elongation growth. Plant Physiol 118:793–801

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Malamy JE, Benfey PN (1997) Organization and cell differentiation in lateral roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Development 124:33–44

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Malamy JE, Ryan KS (2001) Environmental regulation of lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 127:899–909

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mason TG, Maskell EJ (1928) Studies on the transport of carbohydrate in the cotton plant. II. The factors determining the rate and direction of movement sugars. Ann Bot 42:571–636

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culture. Physiol Plant 15:473–497

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ohto M, Onai K, Furukawa Y, Aoki E, Akai T, Nakamura K (2001) Effects of sugar on vegetative development and floral transition in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 127:252–261

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pego JV, Smeekens SCM (2000) Plant fructokinases: a sweet family get-together. Trends Plant Sci 5:531–536

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pego JV, Weisbeek PJ, Smeekens SCM (1999) Mannose inhibits Arabidopsis germination via a hexokinase-mediated step. Plant Physiol 119:1017–1023

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Riou-Khamlichi C, Menges M, Healy JMS, Murray JAH (2000) Sugar control of the plant cell cycle: differential regulation of Arabidopsis D-type cyclin gene expression. Mol Cell Biol 20:4513–4521

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Smith DL, Fedoroff NV (1995) LRP1, a gene expressed in lateral and adventitious root primordia of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 7:735–745

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Torrey JG (1986) Endogenous and exogenous influences on the regulation of lateral root formation. In: Jackson MB (ed) New root formation in plants and cuttings. Nijhoff, Hingham, Mass., pp 31–66

  • Williams LE, Lemoine R, Sauer N (2000) Sugar transporters in higher plants a diversity of roles and complex regulation. Trends Plant Sci 5:283–290

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zhou L, Jang JC, Jones TL, Sheen J (1998) Glucose and ethylene signal transduction crosstalk revealed by an Arabidopsis glucose-insensitive mutant. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:10294–10299

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank Prof. Nobuharu Goto of Miyagi University of Education for kindly supplying Arabidopsis thaliana seeds (col-0), Drs. Tomoko Goto, Qiang Sun for their advice, and Hizuru Yamashita for technical support. We also wish to thank Drs. Ian G. Gleadall (Tohoku Bunka Gakuen University) and Hironao Kataoka (Tohoku University) for their helpful advice.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fumio Takahashi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Takahashi, F., Sato-Nara, K., Kobayashi, K. et al. Sugar-induced adventitious roots in Arabidopsis seedlings. J Plant Res 116, 83–91 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-002-0074-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-002-0074-2

Keywords

  • Adventitious roots
  • Arabidopsis thaliana
  • Dark
  • Hypocotyl
  • Sugar
  • Sugar transport