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The dynamics of trust in B2C e-commerce: a research model and agenda

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Abstract

Trust is a key factor that determines the success of Business to Consumer (B2C) e-commerce transactions. Research has identified several critical factors that influence trust. These have been incorporated into the design of e-commerce web portals; however a vast majority of potential users are still wary of online business transactions. This points to the need for the development of more sophisticated and comprehensive models that can provide additional insights into the true role played by trust in the adoption of e-commerce portals. Here we do so by focusing on trust as it pertains to B2C e-commerce transactions. Pertinent issues addressed are: (1) Is trust the critical factor that makes all the difference between users accepting or rejecting a B2C portal? (2) Are there factors that could play a more critical role in user acceptance/rejection of such portals? (3) If so, what is the relevance of trust relative to these factors? The research model and agenda introduced here enable researchers to view trust in its proper perspective as part of the bigger picture of technology acceptance.

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Correspondence to Clyde W. Holsapple.

Appendices

Appendix 1: List of journals related to e-commerce and organizational computing (www.uky.edu/BusinessEconomics/dssakba)

  • Australian Journal of Electronic Commerce

  • Computer-Mediated Communication Magazine

  • Computer Supported Cooperative Work

  • Decision Support Systems

  • E-Business Advisor Magazine

  • e-Service Quarterly

  • Electronic Commerce Research

  • Electronic Commerce Research and Applications

  • Group Decision and Negotiation

  • The Information Society

  • Intelligent Enterprise

  • International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems

  • International Journal of Electronic Business

  • International Journal of Electronic Commerce

  • International Journal of Electronic Markets

  • International Journal of Internet and Enterprise Management

  • Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication

  • Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations

  • Journal of Electronic Commerce Research

  • Journal of Hyperlinked Organization

  • Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce

  • Organization Science

  • Quarterly Journal of Electronic Commerce

  • Universal Access in the Information Society

Appendix 2: Top Journals publishing IS research (www.isworld.org/csaunders/rankings.htm)

1.1 Journals devoted to MIS or IS specialty area

  • MIS Quarterly

  • Information Systems Research

  • Journal of Management Information Systems

  • Decision Support Systems

  • Information and Management

  • European Journal of Information Systems

  • Communications of the AIS

  • Journal of Information Systems Management

  • Information Systems

  • Information Resources Management Journal

1.2 Multidiscipline journals

  • Management Science

  • Decision Sciences

  • Harvard Business Review

  • Sloan Management Review

  • Omega

  • Organization Science

1.3 Reference discipline journals

  • Communications of the ACM

  • Journal of the ACM

  • IEEE Transactions

  • ACM Transactions

  • Computer (IEEE)

  • Any IEEE publication

  • ACM Computing Surveys

  • Academy of Management Journal

  • Academy of Management Review

Appendix 3: Studies short-listed for review

[1] Gefen D (2000) E-commerce: the role of familiarity and trust. Omega, 28(6):725–737

[2] Gefen D, Straub D (2003) Managing user trust in B2C e-services. e-Service Journal, 2(2):7–24

[3] Gefen D, Karahanna E and Straub D (2003) Inexperience and experience with online stores: the importance of TAM and trust. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 50(3): 307–321

[4] Gefen D, Karahanna E, Straub DW (2003) Trust and TAM in online shopping: an integrated model. MIS Quarterly, 27(1):51–90

[5] Jarvenpaa SL, Tractinsky N (1999) Consumer trust in an internet store: a cross-cultural validation. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 5(2):1–35

[6] Jarvenpaa SL, Tractinsky N, Vitale M (2000) Consumer trust in an internet store. Information Technology and Management, 1(1):45–71

[7] Kimery KM, McCord M (2002) Third-party assurances: Mapping the road to trust in e-retailing. Journal of Information Technology Theory and Application, 4(2):63–82

[8] Koufaris M, Hampton-Sosa W (2004) The development of initial trust in an online company by new customers. Information and Management, 41(3):377–397

[9] Lee KO, Turban E (2001) A trust model for consumer internet shopping. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 6(1):75–91

[10] Liu C, Marchewka, JT, Lu J, Yu CS (2004) Beyond concern: a privacy–trust–behavioral intention model of electronic commerce. Information and Management, 42(1): 127–142

[11] Nöteberg A, Christiaanse E, Wallage P (2003) Consumer trust in electronic channels: The impact of electronic commerce assurance on consumers’ purchasing likelihood and risk perceptions. e-Service Journal, 2(2):46–67

[12] Pavlou PA, (2003) Consumer acceptance of electronic commerce: integrating trust and risk with the technology acceptance model. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 7(3):69–103

[13] Roy MC, Dewit O, Aubert BA (2001) The impact of interface usability on trust in web retailers. Internet Research, 11(5):388–398

[14] Stewart KJ (2003) Trust transfer on the world wide web. Organization Science, 14(1):5–17

[15] Suh B, Han I (2003) The impact of customer trust and perception of security control on the acceptance of electronic commerce. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 7(3):135–161

[16] Walczuch R, Lundgren H (2004) Psychological antecedents of institution-based consumer trust in e-retailing. Information & Management, 42(1):159–177

Appendix 4: Questionnaire measures for research model constructs (Likert scale)

1.1 Subjective norms (adapted from Hu et al. 2003; Venkatesh and Davis 2000; Venkatesh and Morris 2000)

  1. 1.

    My friends would think that I should use the online banking system.

  2. 2.

    My colleagues would think that I should use the online banking system.

  3. 3.

    People who influence my behavior would think that I should use the online banking system.

  4. 4.

    People who are important to me would think that I should use the online banking system.

1.2 Self efficacy (adapted from Hu et al. 2003; Venkatesh 2000)

I could complete the online banking transaction

  1. 1.

    If there was no one around to tell me what to do as I go.

  2. 2.

    If I had only the software manuals for reference.

  3. 3.

    If I had seen someone else using it before trying it myself.

  4. 4.

    If I could call someone for help if I got stuck.

  5. 5.

    If someone else had helped me get started.

  6. 6.

    If I had a lot of time to complete the job for which the software was provided.

1.3 Computer anxiety (Venkatesh 2000)

  1. 1.

    Computers do not scare me at all.

  2. 2.

    Working with a computer makes me nervous.

  3. 3.

    I do not feel threatened when others talk about computers.

  4. 4.

    It would not bother me to take computer courses.

  5. 5.

    Computers make me feel uncomfortable.

  6. 6.

    I feel at ease in a computer class.

  7. 7.

    I get a sinking feeling when I think of trying to use a computer.

  8. 8.

    I feel comfortable working with a computer.

  9. 9.

    Computers make me feel uneasy.

1.4 Trust (adapted from Jarvenpaa et al. 2000; Roy et al. 2001; Suh and Han 2003)

  1. 1.

    I know that this banker is honest.

  2. 2.

    This (online) bank is one that keeps promises and commitments.

  3. 3.

    This (online) bank has more to lose by not delivering on promises.

  4. 4.

    This (online) bank is very capable of performing their job.

  5. 5.

    This (online) bank is known to be successful at the things it tries to do.

  6. 6.

    This (online) bank has much knowledge about the work that needs to be done.

  7. 7.

    I feel very confident about this banker’s skills.

  8. 8.

    My needs and desires are very important to this banker.

Appendix 5: Summary of TAM research

 

External Factor

Reference

Affected TAM constructs

Subjective Norms

Venkatesh V, Morris MG (2000) Why don’t men ever stop to ask for directions? Gender, social influence and their role in technology acceptance and usage behavior. MIS Quart 24(1):115–139

Intention

Hu P, Clark T, Ma W (2003) Examining technology acceptance by school teachers: a longitudinal study. Information and Management 41(2):227–241

Usefulness, Intention

Venkatesh V, Davis FD (2000) A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: four longitudinal field studies. Management Science 46(2):186–204

Usefulness, Intention

Lucas HC, Spitler VK (1999) Technology use and performance: a field study of broker workstations. Decision Sciences 30(2):291–311

Usefulness

Lucas HC, Spitler VK (2000) Implementation in a world of workstations and networks. Inform Manage 38(2): 119–128

Intention

Karahanna E, Straub DW (1999) The psychological origins of perceived usefulness and ease-of-use. Inform Manage 35(4):237–250

Usefulness

Riemenschneider CK, Harrison DA, Mykytyn PP (2003) Understanding IT adoption decisions in small business: integrating current theories. Inform Manage 40(4):269–285

Intention

Karahanna E, Limayem M (2000) E-Mail and V-Mail Usage: generalizing across technologies. Journal of organizational computing and electronic commerce, 10(1):49–66

Ease of use

Self Efficacy

Venkatesh V (2000) Determinants of perceived ease of use: integrating perceived behavioral control, computer anxiety and enjoyment into the technology acceptance model Inform Syst Res 11(4):342–365

Ease of Use

Hu P, Clark T, and Ma W (2003) Examining technology acceptance by school teachers: a longitudinal study. Inform Manage 41(2):227–241

Ease of Use, Intention

Igbaria M, Iivari J (1995) The effects of self-efficacy on computer usage. OMEGA Int J Manage Sci 23(6):587–605

Ease of Use

Chau PYK (2001) Influence of computer attitude and self-efficacy on IT usage behavior. J End User Comput 13(1):26–33

Usefulness

Thong JYL, Hong W H, Tam, KR (2002) Understanding user acceptance of digital libraries: what are the roles of interface characteristics, organizational context, and individual differences? Int J Human-Comput Stud 57(3):215–242

Ease of Use

Computer Anxiety

Venkatesh V (2000) Determinants of perceived ease of use: integrating perceived behavioral control, computer anxiety and enjoyment into the technology acceptance model. Inform Syst Res 11:342–365

Ease of use

Igbaria M, Iivari J (1995) The effects of self-efficacy on computer usage. OMEGA International Journal of Management Science 23(6):587–605

Ease of use

Igbaria M (1993) User acceptance of microcomputer technology: an empirical test. Omega, 21(1):73

Usefulness, Intention

Job Relevance

Hu P, Clark T, Ma W (2003) Examining technology acceptance by school teachers: a longitudinal study. Inform Manage 41(2):227–241

Usefulness

Dishaw MT, Strong DM (1999) Extending the technology acceptance model with task-technology fit constructs. Inform Manage 36(1):9–21

Ease of Use

Venkatesh V, Davis FD (2000) A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: Four Longitudinal Field Studies. Manage Sci 46(2):186–204

Usefulness

Thong JYL, Hong WH, Tam KR (2002) Understanding user acceptance of digital libraries: what are the roles of interface characteristics, organizational context, and individual differences? Int J Human-Computer Stud 57(3):215–242

Ease of Use, Usefulness

Chau PYK, Lai VSK (2003) An empirical investigation of the determinants of user acceptance of Internet banking. J Org Comp Elect Com 13(2):123–146

Usefulness

Enjoyment

Agarwal R, Karahanna E (2000) Time flies when you are having fun: cognitive absorption and beliefs about information technology usage. MIS Quart 24(4):665–694

Usefulness, Ease of Use

Venkatesh V, (2000) Determinants of perceived ease of use: integrating perceived behavioral control, computer anxiety and enjoyment into the technology acceptance model. Inform Syst Res 11, 2000, 342–365

Ease of Use

Heijden H, van der (2003) Factors influencing the usage of websites: the case of a generic portal in The Netherlands. Inform Manage 40(6):541–549

Attitude, Intention

Playfulness

Venkatesh V (2000) Determinants of perceived ease of use: integrating perceived behavioral control, computer anxiety and enjoyment into the technology acceptance model. Inform Syst Res 11:342–365

Ease of Use

Moon JW, Kim YG (2001) Extending the TAM for a World-Wide-Web context. Inform Manage 38(4):217–230

Attitude, Intention

Compatibility

Hu P, Clark T, Ma W (2003) Examining technology acceptance by school teachers: a longitudinal study. Inform Manage 41(2): 227–241

Ease of Use, Usefulness

Chen L, Gillenson ML, Sherrell DL (2002) Enticing online consumers: an extended technology acceptance perspective. Inform Manage 39(8):705–719

Attitude

Chau PYK, Hu PJ (2002) Examining a model of information technology acceptance by individual professionals: An exploratory study. J Manage Inform Syst 18(4):191–229

Usefulness

Gefen D, Karahanna E, Straub DW (2003) Trust and TAM in online shopping: an integrated model. MIS Quart 27(1):51–90

Ease of Use

Computer Attitude

Chau PYK, (2001) Influence of Computer Attitude and Self-Efficacy on IT Usage Behavior. J End User Comput 13(1):26–33

Usefulness

Image

Venkatesh V, Davis FD (2000) A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: four longitudinal field studies. Manage Sci 46(2):186–204

Usefulness

Result demonstrability

Venkatesh V, Davis FD (2000) A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: four longitudinal field studies. Manage Sci 46(2):186–204

Usefulness

Output quality

Venkatesh V, Davis FD (2000) A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: four longitudinal field studies. Manage Sci 46(2):186–204

Usefulness

Interaction Style

Wiedenbeck S, Davis S (1997) The influence of interaction style and experience on user perceptions of software packages. Int J Human-Comput Stud 46(5): 563–588

Ease of Use

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Holsapple, C.W., Sasidharan, S. The dynamics of trust in B2C e-commerce: a research model and agenda. ISeB 3, 377–403 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10257-005-0022-5

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