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An adaptive-remeshing framework to predict impact-induced skull fracture in infants

Abstract

Infant skull fractures are common in both accidental and abusive head trauma, but identifying the cause of injury may be challenging without adequate evidence. To better understand the mechanics of infant skull fracture and identify environmental variables that lead to certain skull fracture patterns, we developed an innovative computational framework that utilizes linear elastic fracture mechanics theory to predict skull fracture as a first step to study this problem. The finite element method and adaptive-remeshing technique were employed to simulate high-fidelity, geometrically explicit crack propagation in an infant skull following impact. In the framework, three modes of stress intensity factors are calculated by means of the M-integral using the commercial analysis code, FRANC3D, and are used as measures of crack driving force. The anisotropy of infant skulls is represented by means of a transversely isotropic constitutive model and a direction-dependent fracture-toughness locus. The ability of the framework to predict impact-induced fracture patterns is validated by comparison with experimentally observed fracture patterns from the literature.

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Acknowledgements

This project was supported by Award No. 2016-DN-BX-0160, awarded by the National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, US Department of Justice. The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication, program, exhibition are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Department of Justice. Initial development of the infant skull model was supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Grant NCIPC R49CE000411. The authors gratefully acknowledge Dr. Bruce Carter for his technical support on issues regarding the use of FRANC3D.

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Correspondence to Ashley D. Spear.

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He, J., Yan, J., Margulies, S. et al. An adaptive-remeshing framework to predict impact-induced skull fracture in infants. Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10237-020-01293-9

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Keywords

  • Computational fracture mechanics
  • Infant skull fracture
  • Crack growth
  • Linear elastic fracture mechanics