Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 645–663 | Cite as

Modeling blood flow around a thrombus using a hybrid particle–continuum approach

  • Debanjan MukherjeeEmail author
  • Shawn C. Shadden
Original Paper


A hybrid, multiscale, particle–continuum numerical method is developed for resolving the interaction of a realistic thrombus geometry with unsteady hemodynamics typically occurring within large arteries. The method is based on a discrete particle/element description of the thrombus, coupled to blood flow using a fictitious domain finite element method. The efficacy of the discrete element approach in representing thrombi with arbitrary aggregate morphology and microstructure is demonstrated. The various features of the method are illustrated using a series of numerical experiments with a model system consisting of an occlusion embedded in a channel. The results from these numerical experiments establish that this approach can resolve the complex macroscale flow structures emanating from unsteady hemodynamics interacting with a thrombus. Simultaneously, it can also resolve micromechanical features, and microscale intra-thrombus flow and perfusion. Using a staggering algorithm, the method can further capture hemodynamics around time-varying thrombus manifolds. This is established using a numerical simulation of lysis of an idealized clot. The hybrid particle–continuum description of thrombus–hemodynamics interaction mechanics, and the unified treatment of macroscale as well as microscale flow and transport, renders significant advantages to the proposed method in enabling further investigations of physiological interest in thrombosis within patient-specific settings.


Thrombosis Hemodynamics Discrete element Fictitious domain Multiscale Fluid–structure interaction 



This research was sponsored by the American Heart Association Award No: 16POST-27500023. The authors gratefully acknowledge the fruitful discussions with Prof. Scott L. Diamond and Dr. Maurizio Tomaiuolo from University of Pennsylvania regarding the topics in this manuscript, which were enabled by a Burroughs Wellcome Fund Collaborative Research Travel Award (Award No: 1016360) to DM. The authors also thank Dr. T.J. Stalker from University of Pennsylvania for sample microscopy image used for illustrating the particle reconstruction of clots. DM and SCS conceptualized this study, DM developed the numerical methods and simulation tools and drafted the manuscript, DM and SCS discussed and designed the simulation experiments for the study, SCS reviewed and edited the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

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