Advertisement

Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 447–469 | Cite as

Numerical investigation of inspiratory airflow in a realistic model of the human tracheobronchial airways and a comparison with experimental results

  • Jakub Elcner
  • Frantisek Lizal
  • Jan Jedelsky
  • Miroslav JichaEmail author
  • Michaela Chovancova
Original Paper

Abstract

In this article, the results of numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and a comparison with experiments performed with phase Doppler anemometry are presented. The simulations and experiments were conducted in a realistic model of the human airways, which comprised the throat, trachea and tracheobronchial tree up to the fourth generation. A full inspiration/expiration breathing cycle was used with tidal volumes 0.5 and 1 L, which correspond to a sedentary regime and deep breath, respectively. The length of the entire breathing cycle was 4 s, with inspiration and expiration each lasting 2 s. As a boundary condition for the CFD simulations, experimentally obtained flow rate distribution in 10 terminal airways was used with zero pressure resistance at the throat inlet. CCM+ CFD code (Adapco) was used with an SST k-\(\upomega \) low-Reynolds Number RANS model. The total number of polyhedral control volumes was 2.6 million with a time step of 0.001 s. Comparisons were made at several points in eight cross sections selected according to experiments in the trachea and the left and right bronchi. The results agree well with experiments involving the oscillation (temporal relocation) of flow structures in the majority of the cross sections and individual local positions. Velocity field simulation in several cross sections shows a very unstable flow field, which originates in the tracheal laryngeal jet and propagates far downstream with the formation of separation zones in both left and right airways. The RANS simulation agrees with the experiments in almost all the cross sections and shows unstable local flow structures and a quantitatively acceptable solution for the time-averaged flow field.

Keywords

Human lungs Realistic tracheobronchial airways Airway model Tracheobronchial tree Upper airways Oscillatory flow Waveform inspiration Numerical simulations Phase Doppler anemometry 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Project GA P105/11/1339 and funded by the Czech Science Foundation and Project LO1202 NETME CENTRE PLUS with financial support from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under the “National Sustainability Programme I.” Frantisek Lizal and Michaela Chovancova were supported by Project CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0039 of Brno University of Technology.

Supplementary material

10237_2015_701_MOESM1_ESM.wmv (1.5 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (wmv 1497 KB)

References

  1. Agnihotri V, Ghorbaniasl G, Verbanck S, Lacor C (2014) On the multiple LES frozen field approach for the prediction of particle deposition in the human upper respiratory tract. J Aerosol Sci 68:58–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ball CG, Uddin M, Pollard A (2008) High resolution turbulence modelling of airflow in an idealized human extra-thoracic airway. Comput Fluids 37:943–964CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Brücker C, Schröder W (2003) Flow visualization in a model of the bronchial tree in the human lung airways via 3-D PIV, Proceedings of the 4th pacific symposium on flow visualization and image processing (PSFVIP-4), Chamonix, France, 3-5 june 2003Google Scholar
  4. Chen J, Gutmark E (2014) Numerical investigation of airflow in an idealized human extra-thoracic airway: a comparison study. Biomech Model Mechanobiol 13:205–214. doi: 10.1007/s10237-013-0496-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cui XG, Gutheil E (2011) Large eddy simulation of the unsteady flow-field in an idealized human mouth-throat configuration. J Biomech 44:2768–2774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ghahramani E, Abouali O, Emdad H, Ahmadi G (2014) Numerical analysis of stochastic dispersion of micro-particles in turbulent flows in a realistic model of human nasal/upper airway. J Aerosol Sci 67:188–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ghalati PF, Keshavarzian E, Abouali O, Faramarzi A, Tu J, Shakibafard A (2012) Numerical analysis of micro-and nano-particle deposition in a realistic human upper airway. Comput Biol Med 42:39–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Heenan AF, Matida EA, Pollard A, Finlay WH (2003) Experimental measurements and computational modeling of the flow in an idealized extrathoracic airway. Exp Fluids 35:70–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Horsfield K, Dart G, Olson DE, Filley GF, Cumming G (1971) Models of the human bronchial tree. J Appl Physiol 31:207–217Google Scholar
  10. Huang J, Sun H, Liu C, Zhang L (2013) Moving boundary simulation of airflow and micro-particle deposition in the human extra-thoracic airway under steady inspiration. Part I: airflow. Eur J Mech B Fluids 37:29–41MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jayaraju ST, Brouns M, Verbanck S, Lacor C (2007) Fluid flow and particle deposition analysis in a realistic extrathoracic airway model using unstructured grids. J Aerosol Sci 38:494–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jedelsky J, Lízal F, Jícha M (2012) Characteristics of turbulent particle transport in human airways under steady and cyclic flows. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 35:84–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Johnstone A, Uddin M, Pollard A, Heenan A, Finley WH (2004) The flow inside an idealised form of the human extra-thoracic airway. Exp Fluids 37(5):673–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kaye SR, Phillips CG (1997) The influence of the branching pattern of the conduction airways on the flow and aerosol deposition parameters in the human, dog, rat and hamster. J Aerosol Sci 28:1291–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Leschziner MA (1993) Introduction to the modeling of turbulence. Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Lecture series. 1993–02, ISSN: 0377–8312Google Scholar
  16. Li Z, Kleinstreuer C, Zhang Z (2007) Simulation of airflow fields and microparticle deposition in realistic human lung airway models. Part I: airflow patterns. Eur J Mech B Fluids 26:632–649CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. Lin CL, Tawhai MH, McLennanc G, Hoffman EA (2007) Characteristics of the turbulent laryngeal jet and its effect on airflow in the human intra-thoracic airways. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 157:295–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lízal F, Elcner J, Hopke P, Jedelský J, Jícha M (2011) Development of a realistic human airway model. ProcIMechE Part H. J Eng Med 226(H3):197–207. ISSN: 0954-4119Google Scholar
  19. Longest PW, Vinchurkar S, Martonen TB (2006) Transport and deposition of respiratory aerosols in models of childhood asthma. J Aerosol Sci 37:1234–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Longest PW, Holbrook LT (2012) In silico models of aerosol delivery to the respiratory tract—development and applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 64:296–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Luo XY, Hinton JS, Liew TT, Tan KK (2004) LES modelling of flow in a simple airway model. Med Eng Phys 26:403–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lyn DA, Einav S, Rodi W, Park JH (1995) A laser-doppler velocimetry study of ensemble-averaged characteristics of the turbulent near wake of a square cylinder. J Fluid Mech 304:285–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mihaescu M, Murugappan S, Kalra M, Khosla S, Gutmark E (2008) Large Eddy simulation and Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes modeling of flow in a realistic pharyngeal airway model: an investigation of obstructive sleep apnea. J Biomech 41:2279–2288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nowak N, Kakade PP, Annapragada AA (2003) Computational fluid dynamics simulation of airflow and aerosol deposition in human lungs. J Biomed Eng 31:374–390Google Scholar
  25. Pollard A, Uddin M, Shinneeb AM, Ball CG (2012) Recent advances and key challenges in investigations of the flow inside human oro-pharyngeal-laryngeal airway. Int J Comput Fluid Dyn 26(6–8):363–381MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Piglione MC, Fontana D, Vanni M (2012) Simulation of particle deposition in human central airways. Eur J Mech B Fluids 31:91–101MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. Pope SB (2003) Turbulent flow. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  28. Schmidt A, Zidowitz S, Kriete A, Denhard T, Krass S, Peitgen HO (2004) A digital reference model of the human bronchial tree. Comput Med Imaging Gr 28:203–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Soni B, Aliabadi S (2013) Large-scale CFD simulations of airflow and particle deposition in lung airway. Comput Fluids 88:804–812MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Taulbee DB, Yu CP (1975) A theory of aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract. J Appl Physiol. 38(1):77–85Google Scholar
  31. Tropea C, Yarin A, Foss J (ed) (2007) Handbook of experimental fluid mechanics. Springer, Berlin. ISBN: 978-3-540-25141-5Google Scholar
  32. User Guide STAR-CCM+, Version 8.02Google Scholar
  33. VKI Lecture series 1993–2002, 1993 Introduction to the modeling of turbulenceGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang Y, Elghobashi S (2014) On locating the obstruction in the upper airway via numerical simulation. Respir Phys Neurobiol 193:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Weibel E (1963) Morphometry of the Human Lung. Springer Verlag and Academic Press, Berlin, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wilcox DC (2000) Turbulence modeling for CFD, 2nd edition, DCW Industries, Inc., ISBN: 0-963051-5-1Google Scholar
  37. Zarogoulidis P, Papanas N, Kouliatsis G, Spyratos D, Zarogoulidis K, Maltezos E (2011) Inhaled insulin: too soon to be forgotten? J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 24(5):213–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhang Z, Kleinstreuer C (2003) Low-Reynolds-number turbulent flows in locally constricted conduits: a comparison study. Am Inst Aeronaut Astronaut J (AIAAJ) 41:831–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang Z, Kleinstreuer C (2011) Computational analysis of airflow and nanoparticle deposition in a combined nasal–oral–tracheobronchial airway model. J Aerosol Sci 42(3):174–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jakub Elcner
    • 1
  • Frantisek Lizal
    • 1
  • Jan Jedelsky
    • 1
  • Miroslav Jicha
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michaela Chovancova
    • 1
  1. 1.Brno University of TechnologyBrnoCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations