Skip to main content
Log in

Influence of tropical cyclone Jawad on the surface and sub-surface circulation in the Bay of Bengal: ocean–atmosphere feedback

  • Published:
Ocean Dynamics Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The anomalous post-monsoon tropical cyclone (TC) Jawad has been simulated using the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Wave Sediment Transport (COAWST) model using Global Forecasting System (GFS) Analyses and Forecasts as the atmospheric initial and boundary conditions (IC and BC) along with two contrasting ocean IC and BCs, viz., HYCOM (experiment name GFS-HYCOM) and INCOIS (experiment name GFS-INCOIS), to evaluate the influence of TC Jawad on the ocean surface and sub-surface characteristics. Both experiments captured the track of the simulated TC, including its recurvature, with significant accuracy. Validation of surface and sub-surface temperatures from two buoys, (1) BD11 (west of the TC track) and (2) BD13 (east of the TC track) suggests that a proper contrast in temperature exists in the buoy observations between the two sides of the TC track with the eastern side—showing higher sub-surface warming, which is captured by GFS-HYCOM but with significant overestimation. The lower temperature on the western side of the TC track can be attributed to the weak upwelling associated with the cyclonic circulation caused by the interaction of the TC with the southward coastal currents. The vertical distribution of the temperature across the longitudes showed an unusually higher downwelling on the eastern side of the TC track suggesting the existence of a strong clockwise circulation near the location of BD13. This circulation was found to be more rigorous in GFS-HYCOM, which also simulated higher current magnitude in the sub-surface than GFS-INCOIS. Further analysis showed that the interaction of the cyclonic wind flow of TC Jawad (westerly) near the surface with the easterly flow caused the generation of the clockwise circulation over the ocean surface on the eastern side of the TC track leading to intense downwelling and warming of sub-surface temperature. This study highlights the importance of the employment of coupled ocean–atmosphere models to simulated TCs for a better understanding of the air–sea interaction processes and their responses to the passage of an anomalous TC like Jawad.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

Similar content being viewed by others

Data availability

The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

References

  • Ali MM, Kashyap T, Nagamani PV (2013) Use of sea surface temperature for cyclone intensity prediction needs a relook. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 94:177

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baisya H, Pattnaik S, Chakraborty T (2020) A coupled modeling approach to understand ocean coupling and energetics of tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal basin. Atmos Res 246:105092

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benetazzo A, Carniel S, Sclavo M (2013) A Bergamasco wave–current interaction: effect on the wave field in a semi-enclosed basin. Ocean Model 70:152–165

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bhaskar Rao DV, Tallapragada V (2012) Tropical cyclone prediction over Bay of Bengal: a comparison of the performance of NCEP operational HWRF, NCAR ARW, and MM5 models. Nat Hazards 63:1393–1411

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bongirwar V, Rakesh V, Kishtawal CM, Joshi PC (2011) Impact of satellite observed microwave SST on the simulation of tropical cyclones. Nat Hazards 58:929–944

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Booij N, Ris RC, Holthuijsen LH (1999) A third-generation wave model for coastal regions: 1. Model description and validation. J Geophys Res Oceans 104:7649–7666

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bosart L, Velden CS, Bracken WE, Molinari J, Black PG (2000) Environmental influences on the rapid intensification of Hurricane Opal (1995) over the Gulf of Mexico. Mon Weather Rev 128:322–352

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Byju P, Prasanna Kumar S (2011) Physical and biological response of the Arabian Sea to tropical cyclone Phyan and its implications. Mar Environ Res 71:325–330

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Calvino C, Dabrowski T, Dias F (2022) A study of the sea level and current effects on the sea state in Galway Bay, using the numerical model COAWST. Ocean Dyn 72:761–774. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-022-01532-w

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carniel S, Warner JC, Chiggiato J, Sclavo M (2009) Investigating the impact of surface wave breaking on modeling the trajectories of drifters in the northern Adriatic Sea during a wind-storm event. Ocean Model 30(2–3):225–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2009.07.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chacko N (2018) Effect of cyclone Thane in the Bay of Bengal explored using moored buoy observations and multi-platform satellite data. J Ind Soc Remote Sens 46:821–828

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chakraborty T, Pattnaik S, Baisya H, Vishwakarma V (2022) Investigation of ocean sub-surface processes in tropical cyclone Phailin using a coupled modeling framework: sensitivity to ocean conditions. Oceans 3(3):364–388

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chakraborty T, Pattnaik S, Baisya H (2023) Investigating the precipitation features of monsoon deep depressions over the Bay of Bengal using high-resolution stand-alone and coupled simulations. Quart J Royal Meteorol Soc 149(753):1213–1235

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chan JCL, Duan Y, Shay LK (2001) Tropical cyclone intensity change from a simple ocean-atmosphere coupled model. J Atmos Sci 58:154–172

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chassignet EP, Smith LT, Halliwell GR, Bleck R (2003) North Atlantic simulations with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM): impact of the vertical coordinate choice, reference pressure, and thermobaricity. J Phys Oceanogr 33:2504–2526

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chou MD, Suarez MJ (1999) A solar radiation parameterization for atmospheric studies. NASA Tech Memo 104606(15):40

    Google Scholar 

  • Climate Prediction Center/National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Weather Service/NOAA/US Department of Commerce (2011) NOAA CPC Morphing Technique (CMORPH) Global Precipitation Analyses; Research Data Archive at the Center for Atmospheric Research, Computational and Information Systems Laboratory: Boulder, CO, USA

  • Egbert GD, Erofeeva GD (2002) Effective inverse modeling of barotropic ocean tides. J Atmos Ocean Technol 19:183–204

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Emanuel KA (1987) The dependence of hurricane intensity on climate. Nat 326:483–485

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Girishkumar MS, Ravichandran M, Han W (2013) Observed intraseasonal thermocline variability in the Bay of Bengal. J Geophys Res Oceans 118:3336–3349

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gray WM (1998) The formation of tropical cyclones. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 67:37–69

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haidvogel DB, Arango H, Budgell WP, Cornuelle BD, Curchitser E, Di Lorenzo E, Fennel K, Geyer WR, Hermann AJ, Lanerolle L (2008) Ocean forecasting in terrain-following coordinates: formulation and skill assessment of the Regional Ocean Modeling System. J Comput Phys 227:3595–3624

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hersbach H, Bell B, Berrisford P, Biavati G, Horányi A, Muñoz Sabater J, Nicolas J, Peubey C, Radu R, Rozum I, Schepers D, Simmons A, Soci C, Dee D, Thépaut J-N. (2018a) ERA5 hourly data on pressure levels from 1959 to present. Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) Climate Data Store (CDS). https://doi.org/10.24381/cds.bd0915c6

  • Hersbach H, Bell B, Berrisford P, Biavati G, Horányi A, Muñoz Sabater J, Nicolas J, Peubey C, Radu R, Rozum I, Schepers D, Simmons A, Soci C, Dee D, Thépaut J-N (2018b) ERA5 hourly data on single levels from 1959 to present. Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) Climate Data Store (CDS). https://doi.org/10.24381/cds.adbb2d47

  • Hong S-Y, Noh Y, Dudhia J (2006) A new vertical diffusion package with an explicit treatment of entrainment processes. Mon Weather Rev 134:2318–2341

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • India Meteorological Department, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India (2021) Cyclonic Storm Jawad over Southwest Bay of Bengal (2-5 December 2021). Link: https://rsmcnewdelhi.imd.gov.in/uploads/report/26/26_f08cd4_detailed%20report%20JAWAD.pdf

  • Jacob R, Larson J, Ong E (2005) (2005) M × N Communication and Parallel Interpolation in Community Climate System Model Version 3 Using the Model Coupling Toolkit. Int J High Perform Comput Appl 19:293–307

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jones PW (1999) First- and second-order conservative remapping schemes for grids in spherical coordinates. Mon Weather Rev 127:2204–2210

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kain JS (2004) The Kain-Fritsch convective parameterization: an update. J App Meteorol 43:170–181

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kirby JT, Chen T-M (1989) Surface waves on vertically sheared flows: approximate dispersion relations. J Geophys Res 94:1013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Komen GJ, Hasselmann K (1984) On the existence of a fully developed wind-sea spectrum. J Phys Oceanogr 14:1271–1285

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kotal SD, Kundu PD, Bhowmik SKR (2009) Analysis of cyclogenesis parameter for developing and nondeveloping low-pressure systems over the Indian Sea. Nat Hazards 50:389–402

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Krishna KM, Rao SR (2009) Study of the intensity of super cyclonic storm GONU using satellite observations. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 11:108–113

    Google Scholar 

  • Larson J, Jacob R, Ong E (2005) The Model Coupling Toolkit: a new Fortran90 toolkit for building multiphysics parallel coupled models. Int J High Perform Comput Appl 19:277–292

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leipper D, Volgenau D (1972) Upper ocean heat content of the Gulf of Mexico. J Phys Oceanogr 2:218–224

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li D-Y, Huang C-Y (2019) The influences of ocean on intensity of typhoon Soudelor (2015) as revealed by coupled modeling. Atmos Sci Lett 20:e871

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lim K-SS, Hong S-Y (2010) Development of an effective double-moment cloud microphysics scheme with prognostic cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) for weather and climate models. Mon Weather Rev 139:1013–1035

    Google Scholar 

  • Lin YL, Chen SY, Hill CM, Huang CY (2005) Control parameters for the influence of a mesoscale mountain range on cyclone track continuity and deflection. J Atmos Sci 62:1849–1866

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu N, Ling T, Wang H, Zhang Y, Gao Z, Wang Y (2015) Numerical simulation of Typhoon Muifa (2011) using a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system. J Ocean Univ China 14:199–209. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11802-015-2415-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Madsen OS, Poon Y-K, Graber HC (1989) Spectral wave attenuation by bottom friction: theory. Coast Eng Proc 1:34

    Google Scholar 

  • Mahapatra DK, Rao AD, Babu SV, Srinivas C (2007) Influence of coastline on upper ocean’s response to the tropical cyclone. Geophys Res Lett 34:9–11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mandal S, Sil S, Shee A, Venkatesan R (2018) Upper ocean and sub-surface variability in the Bay of Bengal during Cyclone Roanu: a synergistic view using in situ and satellite observations. Pure Appl Geophys 175:4605–4624

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Matsui T, Zhang SQ, Tao W-K, lang S, Ichoku C, Peters-Lidard C, (2018) Impact of radiation frequency, precipitation radiative forcing, and radiation column aggregation on convection-permitting West African Monsoon simulations. Clim Dynamics 55:193–213

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McPhaden MJ, Foltz GR, Lee T, Murty VSN, Ravichandran M, Vecchi GA, Vialard J, Wiggert JD, Yu L (2009) Ocean–atmosphere interactions during cyclone Nargis. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 90:53–54

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meroni AN, Parodi A, Pasquero C (2018) Role of SST patterns on surface wind modulation of a heavy midlatitude precipitation event. J Geophys Res Atmos 123:9081–9096. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller BI (1958) On the maximum intensity of hurricanes. J Atmos Sci 15:184–195

    Google Scholar 

  • Mlawer EJ, Taubman SJ, Brown PD, Iacono MJ, Clough SA (1997) Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave. J Geophys Res 102:16663

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mohan GM, Srinivas CV, Naidu CV, Baskaran R, Venkatraman B (2015) Real-time numerical simulation of tropical cyclone Nilam with the WRF: experiments with different initial conditions, 3D-Var and Ocean Mixed Layer Model. Nat Hazards 77:597–624

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Monin AS, Obukhov AM (1954) Basic laws of turbulent mixing in the surface layer of the atmosphere. Contrib Geophys Inst Acad Sci USSR 151:163–187 ((in Russian))

    Google Scholar 

  • National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Weather Service/NOAA/U.S. Department of Commerce. 2000, updated daily. NCEP FNL Operational Model Global Tropospheric Analyses, continuing from July 1999. Research Data Archive at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Computational and Information Systems Laboratory. https://doi.org/10.5065/D6M043C6

  • National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Weather Service/NOAA/U.S. Department of Commerce. 2015, updated daily. NCEP GFS 0.25 Degree Global Forecast Grids Historical Archive. Research Data Archive at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Computational and Information Systems Laboratory. https://doi.org/10.5065/D65D8PWK

  • Olabarrieta M, Geyer WR, Kumar N (2014) The role of morphology and wave-current interaction at tidal inlets: an idealized modeling analysis. J Geophys Res Oceans 119(12):8818–8837. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JC010191

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Prakash KR, Pant V (2020) On the wave-current interaction during the passage of a tropical cyclone in the Bay of Bengal. Deep Sea Res II Top Stud Oceanogr 172(2020):104658. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2019.104658

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Prakash KR, Nigam T, Pant V, Chandra N (2021) On the interaction of mesoscale eddies with a tropical cyclone in the Bay of Bengal. Nat Hazards 106:1981–2001. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-021-04524-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rai D, Pattnaik S, Rajesh PV (2016) Sensitivity of tropical cyclone characteristics to the radial distribution of sea surface temperature. J Earth Syst Sci 125:691–708

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rai D, Pattnaik S, Rajesh PV, Hazra V (2019) Impact of high resolution sea surface temperature on tropical cyclone characteristics over the Bay of Bengal using model simulations. Meteorol Appl 26(1):130–139

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rajasree VPM, Kesarkar AP, Bhate JN et al (2016) Appraisal of recent theories to understand cyclogenesis pathways of tropical cyclone Madi (2013). J Geophys Res Atmos 121:8949–8982

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rao AD (2007) Numerical modeling of cyclone’s impact on the ocean- a case study of the Orissa super cyclone. J Coast Res 23:1245–1250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rao RR, Sivakumar R (2003) Seasonal variability of sea surface salinity and salt budget of the mixed layer of the north Indian Ocean. J Geophys Res 108:3009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ravichandran M, Behringer D, Sivareddy S, Girishkumar M, Chacko N, Harikumar R (2013) Evaluation of the global ocean data assimilation system at INCOIS: the tropical Indian Ocean. Ocean Model 69:123–135

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reynolds RW, Smith TM, Liu C, Chelton DB, Casey KS, Schlax MG (2007) Daily high-resolution-blended analyses for sea surface temperature. J Clim 20:5473–5496. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00293.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Richhi A, Bonaldo D, Cioni G et al (2021) Simulation of a flash-flood event over the Adriatic Sea with a high-resolution atmosphere-ocean-wave coupled system. Sci Rep 11:9388. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88476-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Samson G, Giordani H, Caniaux G, Roux F (2009) Numerical investigation of an oceanic resonant regime induced by hurricane winds. Ocean Dyn 59:565–586

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sanap SD, Mohapatra M, Ali MM et al (2020) On the dynamics of cyclogenesis, rapid intensification, and recurvature of the very severe cyclonic storm Ockhi. J Earth Syst Sci 129:194. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-020-01457-2

  • Schade LR (2000) Tropical cyclone intensity and sea surface temperature. J Atmos Sci 57:3122–3130

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schade LR, Emanuel KA (1994) The ocean’s effect on the intensity of tropical cyclones: results from a simple coupled atmosphere-ocean model. J Atmos Sci 56:642–651

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shapiro LJ, Goldenberg SB (1998) Atlantic sea surface temperatures and tropical cyclone formation. J Clim 11(4):578–590

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shchepetkin AF, McWilliams JC (2005) The regional oceanic modeling system (ROMS): a split-explicit, free-surface, topography-following-coordinate oceanic model. Ocean Mod 9:347–404

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shenoi SSC, Shankar D, Shetye SR (2002) Differences in heat budgets of the near-surface Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal: implications for the summer monsoon. J Geophys Res 107:1–14

    Google Scholar 

  • Sherwood CR, Aretxabaleta AL, Harris CK, Rinehimer JP, Verney R, Ferre B (2018) Cohesive and mixed sediment in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS v3.6) implemented in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System (COAWST r1234). Geosci Model Dev 11:1849–1871. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-1849-2018

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singh VK, Roxy MK, Deshpande M (2020) The unusual long track and rapid intensification of very severe cyclone Ockhi. Curr Sci 119:771–779

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sivareddy S, Ravichandran M, Girishkumar MS, Prasad KVSR (2015) Assessing the impact of various wind forcing on INCOIS-GODAS simulated ocean currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean. Ocean Dyn 65:1235–1247

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Skamarock WC, Klemp JB, Dudhia J, Gill DO, Barker DM, Duda MG, Huang XY, Wang W, Powers JG (2008) A Description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 3; Technical Report. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder

  • Srinivas CV, Mohan GM, Naidu CV et al (2016) Impact of air-sea coupling on the simulation of tropical cyclones in the North Indian Ocean using a simple 3-D ocean model coupled to ARW. J Geophys Res 121:9400–9421

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor PK, Yelland MJ (2001) The dependence of sea surface roughness on the height and steepness of the waves. J Phys Oceanogr 31:572–590

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tewari M, Chen F, Wang W, Dudhia J, LeMone MA, Mitchell K, Ek M, Gayno G, Wegiel J, Cuenca RH (2004) Implementation and verification of the unified NOAH land surface model in the WRF model. 20th Conference on Weather Analysis and Forecasting/16th Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction: 11-15

  • Thadathil P, Muraleedharan PM, Rao RR, Somayajulu YK, Reddy GV, Revichandran C (2007) Observed seasonal variability of barrier layer in the Bay of Bengal. J Geophys Res 112:C02009

    Google Scholar 

  • Uchiyama Y, McWilliams JC, Shchepetkin AF (2010) Wave-current interaction in an oceanic circulation model with vortex-force formalism: application to the surf zone. Ocean Mod 34:16–35

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vishwakarma V, Pattnaik S, Chakraborty T, Joseph S, Mitra AK (2022) Impacts of sea-surface temperatures on rapid intensification and mature phases of super cyclone Amphan (2020). J Earth Syst Sci 131:60

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vissa NK, Satyanarayana ANV, Prasad KB (2013) Response of upper ocean and impact of barrier layer on Sidr cyclone induced sea surface cooling. Ocean Sci J 48:279–288

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang JW, Han W (2014) The Bay of Bengal upper-ocean response to tropical cyclone forcing during 1999. J Geophys Res Ocean 119:98–120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang JW, Han W, Sriver RL (2012) Impact of tropical cyclones on the ocean heat budget in the Bay of Bengal during 1999: 2. Processes and interpretations. J Geophys Res Ocean 117:9021

    Google Scholar 

  • Warner JC, Sherwood CR, Arango HG, Signell RP (2005) Performance of four turbulence closure models implemented using a generic length scale method. Ocean Mod 8:81–113

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Warner JC, Sherwood CR, Signell RP, Harris CK, Arango HG (2008) Development of a three-dimensional, regional, coupled wave, current, and sediment-transport model. Comput Geosci 34:1284–1306

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Warner JC, Armstrong B, He R, Zambon JB (2010) Development of a Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere–Wave–Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system. Ocean Mod 35:230–244

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Warner JC, Armstrong B, Sylvester CS, Voulgaris G, Nelson T, Schwab WC, Denny JF (2012) Storm-induced inner-continental shelf circulation and sediment transport: Long Bay, South Carolina. Cont Shelf Res 42:51–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2012.05.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilks DS (2011) Statistical methods in the atmospheric sciences. Int Geophys 100:2–76

    Google Scholar 

  • Wu CC, Tu WT, Pun IF, Lin II, Peng MS (2016) Tropical cyclone-ocean interaction in Typhoon Megi (2010) A synergy study based on ITOP observations and atmosphere-ocean coupled model simulations. J Geophys Res Atmos 121:153–167

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ye HJ, Kalhoro MA, Sun J, Tang D (2018) Chlorophyll blooms induced by tropical cyclone vardah in the Bay of Bengal. Indian J Geo-Mar Sci 47:1383–1390

    Google Scholar 

  • Yokoi S (2010) Environmental and external factors in the genesis of tropical cyclone Nargis in April 2008 over the Bay of Bengal. J Meteorol Soc Japan 88:425–435

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yuan JP, Cao J (2013) North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone activities influenced by the Indian Ocean Dipole mode. Sci China Earth Sci 56:855–865

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yun K, Chan JCL, Ha K (2012) Effects of SST magnitude and gradient on typhoon tracks around east Asia: a case study for typhoon Maemi (2003). Atmos Res 109–110:36–51

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zambon JP, He R, Warner JC (2014) Investigation of hurricane Ivan using the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST) model. Ocean Dyn 64:1535–1554. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-014-0777-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar for providing the necessary infrastructure to carry out this research. The authors also acknowledge the support provided by the University Grants Commission (UGC), the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), the Department of Science and Technology (DST), the Government of India, and the New Venture Fund, USA. The authors are also thankful to National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), India Meteorological Department( IMD), United States Geological Survey (USGS), National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and US Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) for providing models and datasets. In addition, the authors thank the two anonymous reviewers whose comments and suggestions improved the quality of the manuscript significantly.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sandeep Pattnaik.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 7758 KB)

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Chakraborty, T., Pattnaik, S. & Joseph, S. Influence of tropical cyclone Jawad on the surface and sub-surface circulation in the Bay of Bengal: ocean–atmosphere feedback. Ocean Dynamics 73, 619–637 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-023-01572-w

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-023-01572-w

Keywords

Navigation