Advertisement

Ocean Dynamics

, Volume 68, Issue 6, pp 749–759 | Cite as

Beach recovery capabilities after El Niño 2015–2016 at Ensenada Beach, Northern Baja California

  • Amaia Ruiz de Alegría-Arzaburu
  • Jesús Adrián Vidal-Ruiz
Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on the 8th International conference on Coastal Dynamics, Helsingør, Denmark, 12-16 June 2017

Abstract

This study investigates the recovery capabilities of a single-barred beach in the Pacific Mexican coast before and after the 2015–2016 El Niño winter. Concurrent hydrodynamic and morphological data collected over a 3-year period (August 2014–2017) were analysed to determine the subaerial-subtidal volumetric exchange and cross-shore subtidal sandbar migrations, in relation to the incident wave forcing. The beach presented a seasonal seaward and landward sandbar migration cycle. The sandbar migrated offshore during the energetic waves between November and February, and onshore during the milder wave period in spring, until welding to the subaerial beach around May. The transfer of sediment towards the subaerial section continued over the summer, reaching a complete recovery by September/October. Prior to El Niño, the subaerial beach successfully recovered by the end of summer 2015 through the landward sandbar migration process. The 2015–2016 energetic winter waves caused a subaerial volume loss of ~ 140 m3 m−1 (from October 2015 to March 2016), more than twice the amount eroded in the other winters, and the sandbar moved further offshore and to deeper depths (3–4 m) than the winter before. In addition, the energetic 2015–2016 winter waves lasted for 2 months longer than in other years, making the 2016 spring shorter. Consequently, during the onshore migration, the sandbar was unable of reaching shallow depths, and a large portion of sand remained in the subtidal beach. The subaerial beach recovered 60 and 65% of the loss in the 2016 and 2017 summers, respectively. It is concluded that the landward migration process of the sandbar during the spring is critical to ensure a full subaerial beach recovery over the mild wave period in summer. The recovery capabilities of the subaerial beach will depend on the cross-shore distance and depth where the sandbar is located, and on the duration of mild wave conditions required for the sandbar to migrate onshore.

Keywords

Subtidal sandbars Cross-shore migration Subaerial beach Subtidal beach Sediment transport Climate change 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The contribution of all field assistants and the MORDICS research group (www.mordics.org) is acknowledged, especially the technical support provided in the field by Ernesto Carsolio, Julio López and Eduardo Gil. We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions.

Funding information

The authors are grateful to CONACyT for the funding provided through CB-2014-238765 and INFR-2013-01I005 with the projects 238765 and 205020.

References

  1. Aagaard T, Davidson-Arnott R, Greenwood B, Nielsen J (2004) Sediment supply from shoreface to dunes: linking sediment transport measurements and long-term morphological evolution. Geomorphology 60(1):205–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aleman N, Certain R, Robin N, Barusseau J-P (2017) Morphodynamics of slightly oblique nearshore bars and their relationship with the cycle of net offshore migration. Mar Geol 392:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allan JC, Komar PD (2002) Extreme storms on the Pacific Northwest coast during the 1997–98 El Niño and 1998–99 La Niña. J Coast Res 18(1):175–193Google Scholar
  4. Anthony E, Vanhee S, Ruz M-H (2006) Short-term beach-dune sand budgets on the north sea coast of France: sand supply from shoreface to dunes, and the role of wind and fetch. Geomorphology 81:316–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashok K, Behera SK, Rao SA, Weng H, Yamagata T (2007) El Niño Modoki and its possible teleconnection. J Geophys Res 112:C11007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnard PL, Allan J, Hansen JE, Kaminsky GM, Ruggiero P, Doria A (2011) The impact of the 2009–10 El Niño Modoki on U.S. West Coast beaches. Geophys Res Lett 38(13).  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047707
  7. Barnard PL, Short AD, Harley MD, Splinter KD, Vitousek S, Turner IL, Allan J, Banno M, Bryan KR, Doria A, Hansen JE, Kato S, Kuriyama Y, Randall-Goodwin E, Ruggiero P, Walker IJ, Heathfield D (2015) Coastal vulnerability across the Pacific dominated by El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Nat Geosci 8:801–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnard PL, Hoover D, Hubbard DM, Snyder A, Ludka BC, Allan J, Kaminsky GM, Ruggiero P, Gallien TW, Gabel L, McCandless D, Weiner HM, Cohn N, Anderson DL, Serafin KA (2017) Extreme oceanographic forcing and coastal response due to the 2015–2016 El Niño. Nat Commun 8.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14365
  9. Cai W, Borlace S, Lengaigne M, van Rensch P, Collins M, Vecchi G, Timmermann A, Santoso A, McPhaden MJ, Wu L, England MH, Wang G, Guilyardi E, Jin F-F (2014) Increasing frequency of extreme El Niño events due to greenhouse warming. Nat Climate Change Lett 4:1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1038/NCLIMATE2100 Google Scholar
  10. Cohn N, Ruggiero P, de Vries S, Garcia-Medina G (2017) Beach growth driven by intertidal sandbar welding. Proc Coast Dyn 199:1059–1069Google Scholar
  11. Di Leonardo D, Ruggiero P (2015) Regional scale sandbar variability: observations from the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Cont Shelf Res 95:74–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dingler JR, Reiss RE (2002) Changes to Monterey Bay beaches from the end of the 1982-83 El Niño through the 1997-98 El Niño. Mar Geol 181:249–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Doria A, Guza RT, O’Reilly WC, Yates ML (2016) Observations and modeling of San Diego beaches during El Niño. Cont Shelf Res 124:153–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Grunnet NM, Hoekstra P (2004) Alongshore variability of the multiple barred coast of Terschelling, The Netherlands. Mar Geol 203:23–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Henderson SM, Allen JS, Newberger PA (2004) Nearshore sandbar migration predicted by an eddy-diffusive boundary layer model. J Geophys Res 109:C06024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoefel F, Elgar S (2003) Wave-induced sediment transport and sandbar migration. Science 299:1885–1887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Houser C, Barrett G (2010) Divergent behaviour of the swash zone in response to different foreshore slopes and nearshore states. Mar Geol 271:106–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Komar PD (1999) Beach processes and sedimentation. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, p 544Google Scholar
  19. Lippmann TC, Holman RA, Hathaway KK (1993) Episodic, nonstationary behavior of a double bar system at duck, North Carolina, U.S.A., 1986-1991. J Coast Res SI 15:49–75Google Scholar
  20. Lizarraga-Arciniega R, Chee-Barragan A, Gil-Silva E, Mendoza-Ponce T, Martínez-Díaz de León A (2003) Effect of El Niño on the subaerial beach Playas de Rosarito, B.C., Mexico. Geofis Int 42(3):419–428Google Scholar
  21. Ludka BC, Gallien TW, Crosby SC, Guza RT (2016) Mid-El Niño erosion at nourished and unnourished Southern California beaches. Geophys Res Lett 43:4510–4516.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL068612 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Masselink G, Kroon A, Davidson-Arnott RGD (2006) Morphometrics of intertidal bars in wave-dominated coastal settings—a review. Geomorphology 73:33–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Plant NC, Holman RA, Freilich MH, Birkemeier WA (1999) A simple model for interannual sandbar behaviour. J Geophys Res 104:15755–15776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Revell DL, Komar PD, Sallenger AH (2002) An application of LIDAR to analyses of El Niño erosion in the Netarts littoral cell, Oregon. J Coast Res 18(4):792–801Google Scholar
  25. Ruessink BG, Kroon A (1994) The behaviour of a multiple bar system in the nearshore zone of Terschelling: 1965–1993. Mar Geol 121:187–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ruessink BG, Kuriyama Y, Reniers AJHM, Roelvink JA, Walstra DJR (2007) Modeling cross-shore sandbar behavior on the timescale of weeks. J Geophys Res 112:F0310Google Scholar
  27. Ruiz de Alegria-Arzaburu, A., García-Nava, H., Gil-Silva, E., Desplán-Salinas, G. 2015. A morphodynamic comparison of walled and non-walled beach sections, Ensenada beach, Mexico. World Scientific. The Proceedings of the Coastal Sediments ISBN:978-981-4355-52-0Google Scholar
  28. Ruiz de Alegria-Arzaburu A, Vidal-Ruiz JA, García-Nava H, Romero-Arteaga A (2017) Seasonal morphodynamics of the subaerial and subtidal sections of an intermediate and mesotidal beach. Geomorphology 295:383–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sallenger Jr AH, Krabill W, Brock J, Swift R, Manizade S, Stockdon H (2002) Sea-cliff erosion as a function of beach changes and extreme runup during 1997-1998 El Niño. Mar Geol 187:279–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Scott T, Masselink G, O’Hare T, Saulter A, Poate T, Russell P, Davidson M, Conley D (2016) The extreme 2013/2014 winter storms: beach recovery along the southwest coast of England. Mar Geol 382:224–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Senechal N, Pavon J, Asselot R, Castelle B, Taaouati M, Ferreira S, Bujan S (2016) Recovery assessment of two nearby sandy beaches with contrasting anthropogenic and sediment supply settings. In: Vila-Concejo A, Bruce E, Kennedy DM, MacCarroll RJ (eds.), Proceedings of the 14th International Coastal Symposium (Sydney, Australia). Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, No. 75, pp.462–466. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208Google Scholar
  32. Seymour RJ (1998) Effects of El Niños on the west coast wave climate. Shore Beach 66:3–6Google Scholar
  33. Shand RD, Bailey DG, Shepherd MJ (1999) An inter-site comparison of net offshore bar migration characteristics and environmental conditions. J Coast Res 15:750–765Google Scholar
  34. Storlazzi C, Griggs G (2000) Influence of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events on the evolution of central California’s shoreline. Geol Soc Am Bull 111:236–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Investigaciones OceanológicasUniversidad Autónoma de Baja CaliforniaEnsenadaMexico

Personalised recommendations