Ocean Dynamics

, Volume 66, Issue 2, pp 263–283 | Cite as

Effect of model error representation in the Yellow and East China Sea modeling system based on the ensemble Kalman filter

  • Kyung Man Kwon
  • Byoung-Ju ChoiEmail author
  • Sang-Ho Lee
  • Young Ho Kim
  • Gwang-Ho Seo
  • Yang-Ki Cho
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Coastal Ocean Forecasting Science supported by the GODAE OceanView Coastal Oceans and Shelf Seas Task Team (COSS-TT)


To increase the accuracy of ocean predictions in the Yellow and East China Sea (YES), the satellite-borne sea surface temperature (SST) data have been assimilated to an operational ocean modeling system by applying an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). As the observed SST was assimilated continuously into the model with time, the ensemble spread decreased and the efficiency of data assimilation degenerated. To increase liability of the system and the ensemble spread, model uncertainties were represented stochastically by perturbing the model tendency parameters such as eddy viscosity, bottom drag coefficient, light attenuation depth, as well as atmospheric forcing. Data assimilation experiments were performed with forcing from a regional atmospheric model from September 2011 to February 2012. The assimilation results with and without the stochastically perturbed model parameters and atmospheric forcing were compared. The ensemble with the perturbations has larger spread and smaller root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) in temperature compared with the ensemble without the perturbations. The SST RMSD relative to anther supplementary SST dataset was reduced from 0.91 to 0.81 °C over the YES. The assimilation of the SST data improved the simulated SST compared with the observation at the ocean buoy stations, and also made the subsurface temperature profiles closer to the observed ones. The assimilation experiments showed that a stochastic representation of the model errors by the perturbations of the model parameters and atmospheric forcing increases the spread of the ensemble and improves the structure of background error covariance, which enhances the performance of the ensemble modeling system in the YES.


Ensemble Kalman filter Assimilation Model parameter perturbation Yellow Sea SST 



This research was part of the project titled “Development of Korea Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS), Phase 2” and “Integrated management of marine environment and ecosystems around Saemangeum” funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea, and this research was supported by the Supercomputing Center/Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information with supercomputing resources including technical support (KSC-2013-C2-045).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyung Man Kwon
    • 1
  • Byoung-Ju Choi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sang-Ho Lee
    • 1
  • Young Ho Kim
    • 2
  • Gwang-Ho Seo
    • 3
  • Yang-Ki Cho
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of OceanographyKunsan National UniversityGunsanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Korea Institute of Ocean Science and TechnologyAnsanRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic AgencyBusanRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.School of Earth and Environmental SciencesSeoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

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