The North Atlantic cold bias, associated with the misplacement of the North Atlantic Current (NAC) and typically extending from the surface to 1000 m depth, is a common problem in coupled models that compromises model fidelity. We investigate the use of a flow field correction (FFC) to adjust the path of the NAC and alleviate the cold bias. The FFC consists of three steps. First, climatological potential temperature (T) and salinity (S) fields for use with the model are produced using a three-dimensional restoring technique. Second, these T, S fields are used to modify the momentum equations of the ocean model. In the third stage, the correction term is diagnosed to construct a flow-independent correction. Results using the Kiel Climate Model show that the FFC allows the establishment of a northwest corner, substantially alleviating the subsurface cold bias. A cold bias remains at the surface but can be eliminated by additionally correcting the surface freshwater flux, without adjusting the surface heat flux seen by the ocean model. A model version in which only the surface fluxes of heat and freshwater are corrected continues to exhibit the incorrect path of the NAC and a strong subsurface bias. We also show that the bias in the atmospheric circulation is reduced in some corrected model versions. The FFC can be regarded as a way to correct for model error, e.g. associated with the deep water mass pathways and their impact on the large-scale ocean circulation, and unresolved processes such as eddy momentum flux convergence.
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The altimeter products were produced by Ssalto/Duacs and distributed by Aviso, with support from Cnes (http://www.aviso.altimetry.fr/duacs/).
This is for a model with a surface level of depth 5 m.
Another way of putting this would be to say that the introduction of the flow field correction pushes the model from the model state in CTRL towards a state with a collapsed AMOC, despite the fact that the pattern of the surface freshwater flux is basically the same in both experiments. The reason is probably because of the changed flow path at the surface in C-FFC compared to CTRL that can be seen from Figure 1. In C-FFC, the surface flow path passes under the region of largest freshwater input, as can be seen by comparing Fig. 1 with Fig. 6, whereas in CTRL the flow tends to go around the region of largest freshwater input. This means that the surface flow experiences more freshwater input in C-FFC than in CTRL.
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AD is grateful for support through the Helmholtz Graduate School HOSST. Support from the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, the BMBF MiKlip project ATMOS and the EU NACLIM project is also acknowledged. The authors are also grateful to two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the manuscript.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics: A Scientific Workshop to Celebrate Professor Dr. Richard Greatbatch’s 60th Birthday, Liverpool, UK, 10–11 April 2014
Responsible Editor: Jinyu Sheng
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Drews, A., Greatbatch, R.J., Ding, H. et al. The use of a flow field correction technique for alleviating the North Atlantic cold bias with application to the Kiel Climate Model. Ocean Dynamics 65, 1079–1093 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-015-0853-7
- North Atlantic cold bias
- Northwest corner
- Empirical correction techniques
- North Atlantic Current