Climate change impact on wave energy in the Persian Gulf

Abstract

Excessive usage of fossil fuels and high emission of greenhouse gases have increased the earth’s temperature, and consequently have changed the patterns of natural phenomena such as wind speed, wave height, etc. Renewable energy resources are ideal alternatives to reduce the negative effects of increasing greenhouse gases emission and climate change. However, these energy sources are also sensitive to changing climate. In this study, the effect of climate change on wave energy in the Persian Gulf is investigated. For this purpose, future wind data obtained from CGCM3.1 model were downscaled using a hybrid approach and modification factors were computed based on local wind data (ECMWF) and applied to control and future CGCM3.1 wind data. Downscaled wind data was used to generate the wave characteristics in the future based on A2, B1, and A1B scenarios, while ECMWF wind field was used to generate the wave characteristics in the control period. The results of these two 30-yearly wave modelings using SWAN model showed that the average wave power changes slightly in the future. Assessment of wave power spatial distribution showed that the reduction of the average wave power is more in the middle parts of the Persian Gulf. Investigation of wave power distribution in two coastal stations (Boushehr and Assalouyeh ports) indicated that the annual wave energy will decrease in both stations while the wave power distribution for different intervals of significant wave height and peak period will also change in Assalouyeh according to all scenarios.

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Acknowledgments

We are thankful to the SWAN group for providing the model and to the anonymous reviewers for their fruitful comments.

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Correspondence to Amir Etemad-Shahidi.

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Responsible Editor: Richard Signell

Appendix

Appendix

Fig. 15
figure15

β u (left) and β v (right) for A1B, A2, and B1 scenarios in January

Fig. 16
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β u (left) and β v (right) for A1B, A2, and B1 scenarios in February

Fig. 17
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β u (left) and β v (right) for A1B, A2, and B1 scenarios in March

Fig. 18
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β u (left) and β v (right) for A1B, A2, and B1 scenarios in April

Fig. 19
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β u (left) and β v (right) for A1B, A2, and B1 scenarios in May

Fig. 20
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β u (left) and β v (right) for A1B, A2, and B1 scenarios in September

Fig. 21
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β u (left) and β v (right) for A1B, A2, and B1 scenarios in October

Fig. 22
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β u (left) and β v (right) for A1B, A2, and B1 scenarios in November

Fig. 23
figure23

β u (left) and β v (right) for A1B, A2, and B1 scenarios in December

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Kamranzad, B., Etemad-Shahidi, A., Chegini, V. et al. Climate change impact on wave energy in the Persian Gulf. Ocean Dynamics 65, 777–794 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-015-0833-y

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Keywords

  • Wave energy
  • Climate change
  • CGCM3.1
  • Persian Gulf