Ocean Dynamics

, Volume 63, Issue 7, pp 723–739 | Cite as

Storm surge and tidal interaction in the Tjeldsund channel, northern Norway

  • Birgit Kjoss LyngeEmail author
  • Karina Hjelmervik
  • Bjørn Gjevik


The aim of this study is to investigate tide–surge interaction in narrow channels with complex and relatively shallow topography. A high-resolution depth-integrated tidal and storm surge model has been implemented for the Tjeldsund channel which is an important sailing lane in northern Norway. A horizontal grid resolution down to 50 m is applied in order to represent the complex bottom topography and the formation of jets and small-scale eddies. Two typically storm surge events in December 2004 have been examined in detail. The tide–surge interaction is found to influence the generation of higher harmonics and the formation of eddies in the current field. In some cases, the magnitude of storm surge currents may reach the same magnitude as the tidal currents enhancing the formation of jets and eddies.


Tide–surge interaction Storm surge Tidal model Northern Norway 



The work with this paper has been supported by The Norwegian Hydrographic Service. The modelling work has been supported by The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI), Kjeller under a grant FFI-0352. FFI has in cooperation with NHS, Stavanger, executed a field campaign for recoding current data. NHS provided depth matrix and sea level data both from permanent and temporary stations within the area.


  1. Bobanovic J, Thompson KR, Desjardins S, Ritchie H (2006) Forecasting storm surges along the east coast of Canada and the north-eastern United States: the storm of 21 January 2000. Atmos.-Ocean 44(2):151–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Davies AM, Jones JE, Xing J (1997a) Review of recent developments in tidal hydrodynamic modeling. 1: spectral models. J Hydraul Eng 123(4):278–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Davies AM, Jones JE, Xing J (1997b) Review of recent developments in tidal hydrodynamic modeling. 2: turbulence energy models. J Hydraul Eng 123(4):293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gjevik B, Moe H, Ommundsen A (1997) Sources of the maelstrom. Nature 388(6645):837–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gjevik B, Hareide D, Lynge BK, Ommundsen A, Skailand J, Urheim H (2006) Implementation of high resolution tidal current fields in electronic charts systems. J Mar Geodesy 29(1):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hjelmervik KB, Trulsen K (2009) Freak wave statistics on collinear currents. J Fluid Mech 637:267–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hjelmervik K, Ommundsen A, Gjevik B (2005) Implementation of non-linear advection terms in a high resolution tidal model. Technical report, Preprint Series No. 1, Dept. Math. University of Oslo, Norway, ISSN 0809–4403Google Scholar
  8. Hjelmervik K, Lynge B, Ommundsen A, Gjevik B (2009) Modelling of tides and storm surges in the Tjeldsund channel in northern Norway. In: PhD Thesis Hjelmervik: Wave–current interactions in coastal tidal currents. Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of OsloGoogle Scholar
  9. Horsburgh KJ, Wilson C (2007) Tide-surge interaction and its role in the distribution of surge residuals in the North Sea. J Geophys Res 112. doi: 10.1029/2006JC004033
  10. Johns B, Rao AD, DubeE SK, Sinha PC (1985) Numerical modeling of tide–surge interaction in the Bay of Bengal. Philos Trans Roy Soc Lond A 313(1526):507–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jones JE, Davies AM (2007) Influence of non-linear effects upon surge elevations along the west coast of Britain. Ocean Dyn 57(4-5):401–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jones JE, Davies AM (2008) On the modification of tides in shallow water regions by wind effects. J Geophys Res Oceans 113(C5):C05014. doi: 10.1029/2007JC004310 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Martinsen EA, Engedahl H (1987) Implementation and testing of a lateral boundary scheme as an open boundary-condition in a barotropic ocean model. Coast Eng 11(5–6):603–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mesinger F, Arakawa A (1976) Numerical methods used in atmospheric models. Garp Publication Series No 17, WMO-ICSUGoogle Scholar
  15. Moe H, Ommundsen A, Gjevik B (2002) A high resolution tidal model for the area around The Lofoten Islands, northern Norway. Cont Shelf Res 22(3):485–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Pawlowicz R, Beardsley B, Lentz S (2002) Classical tidal harmonic analysis including error estimates in Matlab using T-TIDE. Comput Geosci 28(8):929–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Prandle D, Wolf J (1978) The interaction of surge and tide in North sea and River Thames. Geophys J R Astron Soc 55(1):203–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Smagorinsky J (1963) General circulation experiments with the primitive equations. Mon Weather Rev 91(3):99–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sutherland G, Garrett C, Foreman M (2005) Tidal resonance in Juan de Fuca Strait and the Strait of Georgia. J Phys Oceanogr 35(7):1279–1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tang YM, Grimshaw R, Sanderson B, Holland G (1996) A numerical study of storm surges and tides, with application to the North Queensland coast. J Phys Oceanogr 26(12):2700–2711CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Birgit Kjoss Lynge
    • 1
    Email author
  • Karina Hjelmervik
    • 2
  • Bjørn Gjevik
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MathematicsUniversity of OsloBlindernNorway
  2. 2.Department of Maritime Technology and InnovationVestfold University CollegeTønsbergNorway

Personalised recommendations