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Experimental Investigation on the Transport Behavior of a Sand/Mud/Water Mixture Through a Mining-Induced Caving Zone

Experimentelle Untersuchung des Transportverhaltens eines Sand-Schlamm-Wasser-Gemisches beim Einbruch durch einen bergbaubedingten Hohlraum

Investigación experimental sobre el comportamiento del transporte de una mezcla de arena y lodo a través de una zona de espeleología provocada por la minería

水砂混合物在采动覆岩垮落带中的运移特性试验研究

Abstract

The transport of sand particles through various mining-induced caving zones was investigated experimentally under different initial infiltration water heads. These experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale caving zone packed with glass beads, using four different sizes of sand grains. The transports were categorized into two different patterns: seepage and driven. The probability of the driven pattern was greatly increased by increasing the height of the initial water head and the size ratio Rs (the ratio of glass beads to sand particles by diameter). The sand portion of the sand/mud/water mixture had a high transport rate while the water had a low one in the mixture. Both rates increased with increasing initial water head height, with a larger increase in the sand transport rate than the water flow rate. The water flow rate is primarily governed by the permeability of the sand layer, while the sand transport rate is greatly affected by Rs. These findings provide an insight into the mechanism of sand/mud/water mixture inrushes and a potential design idea for its control and treatment.

Zusammenfassung

Der Transport von Sandpartikeln durch verschiedene bergbauinduzierte Hohlräume wurde experimentell unter verschiedenen anfänglichen Infiltrationswasserhöhen s untersucht. Diese Experimente wurden in einer mit Glaskugeln gefüllten Hohlraumzone im Labormaßstab unter Verwendung von vier verschiedenen Größen von Sandkörnern durchgeführt. Die Transporte wurden in zwei verschiedene Muster eingeteilt: Sickerwasser und Wasser unter Druck. Die Wahrscheinlichkeit des druckbedingten Musters wurde stark erhöht, indem die Höhe der anfänglichen Wassersäule und das Größenverhältnis R s (das Verhältnis von Glasperlen zu Sandpartikeln nach Durchmesser) erhöht wurden. Der Sandanteil des Sand-Schlamm-Wasser-Gemischs wies eine hohe Transportrate auf, während das Wasser im Gemisch eine niedrige Rate hatte. Beide Raten nahmen mit zunehmender anfänglicher Wassersäule zu, wobei die Sandtransportrate stärker anstieg als die Wasserdurchflussrate. Die Wasserdurchflussrate wird in erster Linie von der Durchlässigkeit der Sandschicht bestimmt, während die Sandtransportrate stark von R s beeinflusst wird. Die Ergebnisse geben einen Einblick in den Mechanismus von Sand/Schlamm/Wasser-Gemischen und liefern einen möglichen Ansatz für Kontrolle und Behandlung von Sandeinbrüchen.

Resumen

Se investigó experimentalmente el transporte de partículas de arena a través de varias zonas de espeleología provocadas por la minería bajo diferentes alturas iniciales de agua de infiltración s. Estos experimentos se realizaron en una zona de espeleología a escala de laboratorio rellena de perlas de vidrio, utilizando cuatro tamaños diferentes de granos de arena. Los transportes se clasificaron en dos patrones diferentes: de infiltración y conducido. La probabilidad de ocurrencia del patrón impulsado se incrementó en gran medida al aumentar la altura de la cabeza de agua inicial y la relación de tamaño R s (la relación entre las perlas de vidrio y las partículas de arena por diámetro). La parte de arena de la mezcla de arena/lodo/agua tenía una tasa de transporte alta mientras que el agua tenía una tasa baja en la mezcla. Ambas tasas se incrementaron con el aumento de la altura inicial de la cabeza del agua, con un mayor aumento en la tasa de transporte de arena que la tasa de flujo de agua. La tasa de flujo de agua se rige principalmente por la permeabilidad de la capa de arena, mientras que la tasa de transporte de arena se ve muy afectada por R s. Estos resultados proporcionan una visión del mecanismo de las irrupciones de la mezcla de arena, lodo y agua, y una posible idea de diseño para su control y tratamiento.

摘要

室内试验研究了砂粒在不同初始水头高度下穿过各种采动覆岩垮落带的运移特性. 室内试验用压实的玻璃珠模拟垮落带破碎岩体, 选取了四种不同粒径的砂粒粒组. 垮落带中的水砂运移分为两种模式:渗流型和驱动型. 随着初始水头高度和粒径比Rs (玻璃珠与砂粒的直径之比) 的增加, 驱动型运移模式发生的概率大幅增加. 水砂混合物中砂颗粒运移速度大, 而水的运移速度小. 砂和水的运移速度均随着初始水头高度的升高而增大, 砂的运移速度的增幅比水的更大. 水运移的速度主要受砂层渗透性的控制, 而砂运移的速度受粒径比 (Rs)的 影响较大. 研究加深了水砂混合物突溃机理的认识, 也为突水溃砂灾害的防治提供了新思路.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 41902283 and 42130706. The authors thank Shichong Yuan and Jiahao Wang of the China University of Mining and Technology for their assistance with the testing.

Funding

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 42130706 and 41902283).

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Correspondence to Wanghua Sui.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

10230_2022_852_MOESM1_ESM.pdf

Fig. S1: Grain size distribution of Aeolian sand in western China and the Quaternary bottom aquifer sand in eastern Chinese coal mines (PDF 15 KB)

Fig. S2: The instantaneous and time-averaged water flow rate for (H, D, d) = (900, 21, 0.25-0.5) (PDF 16 KB)

10230_2022_852_MOESM3_ESM.pdf

Fig. S3: Variations in the water and sand transport rates under different hydrodynamic conditions for (D, d) = (21, 0.25-0.5) (PDF 14 KB)

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Liang, Y., Sui, W., Jiang, T. et al. Experimental Investigation on the Transport Behavior of a Sand/Mud/Water Mixture Through a Mining-Induced Caving Zone. Mine Water Environ 41, 629–639 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10230-022-00852-z

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10230-022-00852-z

Keywords

  • Inrush
  • Transport pattern
  • Initial water head
  • Sand transport rate
  • Water flow rate