Hydraulic Conductivity of Geosynthetic Clay Liners Permeated with Acid Mine Drainage

  • Bao WangEmail author
  • Xingling Dong
  • Bin Chen
  • Tongtong Dou
Technical Article


We investigated the potential use of two geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) as basal liners for acid mine drainage (AMD) from a coal gangue impoundment. One contained natural sodium bentonite (GCL-N), while the other contained sodium-activated bentonite (GCL-S). Chemical compatibility and the effects of effective stress and type of bentonite were evaluated. The test results showed that permeation with a synthesized AMD caused the hydraulic conductivity of the GCL-N and GCL-S to increase by 33 and 104 times, respectively, at an effective stress of 10 kPa. Under an effective stress of 50 kPa, the hydraulic conductivity of the GCL-N and GCL-S permeated with AMD was 1.1 and 6.6 times higher, respectively, than the values based on permeation with distilled water. However, when the effective stress was increased to 200 kPa, the AMD had no negative effect on hydraulic performance. The difference in hydraulic conductivity because of the type of bentonite was only observed at effective stresses of 10 and 50 kPa, with the GCL-N consistently having less hydraulic conductivity than the GCL-S. Thus, the detrimental effects of AMD permeation and low quality bentonite can be countered by applying high effective stress to the GCLs. Both GCLs types may be suitable as effective basal liners for coal gangue impoundments where relatively high stress can be applied.


Coal gangue Bentonite Effective stress Swell 

Durchlässigkeit geosynthetischer Tondichtungsbahnen bei saurem Grubenwasser


Im Zuge der Studie wurde das Potential zweier geosynthetischer Tondichtungsbahnen als Basisdichtung für saure Grubenwässer aus Kohleabraumhalden untersucht. Eine enthält natürlichen Natriumbentonit (GCL-N) während die Andere Natrium-Aktivbentonit (GCL-S) enthält. Chemische Verträglichkeit und die Auswirkungen von wirksamem Druck und Bentonittyp wurden bewertet. Die Testergebnisse zeigen, dass die Permeation mit synthetischem Grubenwasser bei wirksamem Druck von 10 kPa die Durchlässigkeit von GCL-N und GCL-S um das 33 bzw. 104-fache erhöht. Bei wirksamem Druck von 50 kPa und Permeation mit saurem Grubenwasser war die hydraulische Leitfähigkeit von GCL-N und GCL-S im Vergleich zur Permeation mit destilliertem Wasser um das 1,1 und 6,6-fache erhöht. Bei einer Erhöhung des wirksamen Drucks auf 200 kPa hatte das saure Grubenwasser jedoch keine negativen Auswirkungen auf die hydraulische Leistung. Ein Unterschied in der Durchlässigkeit aufgrund des Bentonittyps wurde nur bei wirksamem Druck zwischen 10 und 50 kPa beobachtet, wobei der GCL-N stets eine geringere Durchlässigkeit aufwies als der GCL-S. Die vorliegende Studie zeigt, dass die schädliche Wirkung der Permeation sauren Grubenwassers und minderwertigen Bentonits durch Aufwendung hohen Drucks auf die geosynthetische Tondichtungsbahn entgegengewirkt werden kann. Beide Tondichtungsbahntypen sind als Basisdichtung für Kohleabraum geeignet insofern relativ hoher Druck darauf aufgewendet werden kann.

Conductividad hidráulica de revestimientos de arcilla geosintéticos permeadas con drenaje ácido de mina


Investigamos el uso potencial de dos revestimientos de arcilla geosintéticos (GCL) como revestimientos basales para el drenaje ácido de minas (AMD) de un depósito de ganga de carbón. Uno contenía bentonita de sodio natural (GCL-N) mientras que el otro contenía bentonita activada por sodio (GCL-S). Se evaluaron la compatibilidad química y los efectos del estrés efectivo y el tipo de bentonita. Los resultados de la prueba mostraron que la permeación con una AMD sintética hizo que la conductividad hidráulica del GCL-N y GCL-S aumentara en 33 y 104 veces, respectivamente, a una tensión efectiva de 10 kPa. Bajo una tensión efectiva de 50 kPa, la conductividad hidráulica del GCL-N y GCL-S permeada con AMD fue 1,1 y 6,6 veces mayor, respectivamente, que los valores basados ​​en la permeación con agua destilada. Sin embargo, cuando la tensión efectiva se incrementó a 200 kPa, el AMD no tuvo un efecto negativo en el rendimiento hidráulico. La diferencia en la conductividad hidráulica debido al tipo de bentonita solo se observó con tensiones efectivas de 10 y 50 kPa, con el GCL-N teniendo consistentemente menos conductividad hidráulica que el GCL-S. Este estudio demostró que los efectos perjudiciales de la permeación de AMD y la bentonita de baja calidad se pueden contrarrestar mediante la aplicación de un alto nivel de estrés efectivo en los GCL. Ambos tipos de GCL pueden ser adecuados como revestimientos basales efectivos para embalses de ganga de carbón donde se les puede aplicar un estrés relativamente alto.



研究了两种人工合成粘土砌衬(GCL)用作煤矿矸石堆底部酸性排水(AMD砌衬的可行性。一种是天然钠膨润土(GCL-N),另一种是含钠活性膨润土(GCL-S)。研究了它们化学性能、有效应力和膨润土类型对膨润土透水性的影响。试验结果表明,在10 kPa有效应力作用下,GCL-N和GCL-S膨润土对人工合成AMD的导水率分别提高33倍和104倍。在50kpa有效应力作用下,GCL-N和GCL-S对AMD的导水率分别比蒸馏水高1.1倍和6.6倍。然而,当有效应力增加到200kpa时,已经观测不到AMD本身对膨润土的水力学性能的负面影响。只有在10 kPa和50 kPa有效应力下才能观察到膨润土类型对膨润土导水率的影响,GCL-N导水率始终低于GCL-S。 因此,酸性矿山废水(AMD)渗透性和劣质膨润土的不利影响可以通过向人工合成粘土砌衬施加有效应力抵消。这两种类型工合成粘土砌衬适于较高应力煤矸石堆(库)的底部砌衬。



Financial support for this study was provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), under Grant 41602291. The opinions expressed in this paper are solely those of the authors and are not necessarily consistent with the policies or opinions of the NSFC.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Municipal EngineeringXi’an University of Architecture and TechnologyXi’anChina
  2. 2.Xi’an Research Institute Co. Ltd.China Coal Technology and Engineering Group Corp.Xi’anChina
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringXi’an University of Architecture and TechnologyXi’anChina

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