Prediction of Water Inrush Areas Under an Unconsolidated, Confined Aquifer: The Application of Multi-information Superposition Based on GIS and AHP in the Qidong Coal Mine, China

  • Luwang Chen
  • Xiaoqing Feng
  • Dongqing Xu
  • Wen Zeng
  • Zhiyuan Zheng
Technical Article


The complex geological and hydrogological conditions under the unconsolidated and confined aquifer in the Qidong coal mine have resulted in serious water-inrush hazards. Multi-information superposition was used to predict water inrush areas. Six controlling factors (the specific yield, the effective thickness and load transfer coefficient of the aquifer, the fractal dimensional value of bedrock faults, the effective thickness of the protective bedrock layer, and the distance between the key hard stratum and the primary mineable coal seam) were selected, and a multi-information superposition model was established. Relatively safe areas and medium and higher risk areas were identified using a geographic information system (GIS) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Using the no. 71 primary coal seam in the northern portion of the Qidong mine as an example, the water-inrush areas predicted by the model aligned with observed conditions, which validates the multi-information superposition model. Potential inrush areas of the no. 61, 82, and 9 primary coal seams in the southern portion of the Qidong mine were subsequently identified using this method, which will aid future mining operation.


Groundwater Risk Hazard Coal mining Geographic information system Analytic hierarchy process 



祁东煤矿松散承压含水层下复杂的地质和水文地质条件已引起一系列煤层顶板突水事故的发生。本文利用多元信息融合法预测了煤层顶板突水危险区。选取了六个控制因素(单位涌水量、含水层有效厚度、含水层荷载传递系数、基岩断层分形维值、基岩保护层有效厚度、关键硬岩层与主采煤层间距), 建立了煤层顶板突水多元信息融合模型。应用地理信息系统(GIS)和层次分析法(AHP)划分出安全区、中等危险区和危险区。以祁东煤矿北部采区71主采煤层为例, 由模型所预测的突水危险区与现场实际观测一致, 模型具有良好的适用性。由该模型所预测的祁东煤矿南部采区61、82和9煤顶板潜在突水危险区, 将有助于煤矿进一步的安全开采。

Vorhersage von Wassereinbruchszonen unter einem gespanntem Wasserkörper in Lockergebirge: Die Anwendung integrierter Informationsüberlagerung basierend auf GIS und AHP in der Qidong Kohlengrube in China


Die komplexen geologischen und hydrogeologischen Bedingungen unterhalb eines gespannten Aquifers im Lockergebirge in der Qidong Kohlengrube haben zu schwerwiegenden Wassereinbruchsrisiken geführt. Die integrierte Informationsüberlagerung wurde zur Vorhersage von Wassereinbruchszonen eingesetzt. 6 Einflussfaktoren (das Ausbringen, die effektive Mächtigkeit und der Durchlässigkeitskoeffizient des Aquifers, die fraktale Dimension der Störungszonen im Grundgebirge, die effektive Mächtigkeit der Sicherheitsschwebe und der Abstand zwischen Leithorizont und dem Hauptflöz) wurden ausgewählt und ein Multiinformationsüberlagerungsmodell wurde aufgestellt. Relativ sichere Zonen sowie Mittel- und Hochrisikozonen wurden unter Verwendung eines Geographischen Informationssystems (GIS) und eines Analytischen Hierarchieprozesses (AHP) identifiziert. Am Beispiel des Hauptflözes Nr. 71 im nördlichen Bereich der Qidong Grube wurden die mit dem Modell vorhergesagten Wassereinbruchszonen mit den beobachteten Bedingungen verglichen und so das Multiinformationsüberlagerungsmodel überprüft. Potentielle Wassereinbruchszonen in den Hauptflözen Nr. 61, 82 und 9 im südlichen Bereich der Qidong Grube wurden mit dieser Methode in Folge erkannt, womit der künftige Abbau unterstützt wird.

Predicción de áreas de irrupción de agua bajo un acuífero confinado no consolidado: la aplicación de la superposición de información múltiple basada en GIS y AHP en la mina de carbón Qidong, China


Las complejas condiciones geológicas e hidrográficas bajo un acuífero no consolidado y confinado en la mina de carbón de Qidong han provocado graves riesgos de irrupción de agua. La superposición de información múltiple se utilizó para predecir las áreas de entrada de agua. Se seleccionaron seis factores de control (el rendimiento específico, el espesor efectivo y el coeficiente de transferencia de carga del acuífero, el valor dimensional fractal de las fallas del lecho de roca, el espesor efectivo de la capa protectora del lecho de roca y la distancia entre el estrato duro clave y la veta principal de carbón explotable) y se estableció un modelo de superposición de información múltiple. Se identificaron áreas relativamente seguras y áreas de riesgo medio y alto utilizando un sistema de información geográfica (GIS) y el proceso de jerarquía analítica (AHP). Usando el no. 71 la veta de carbón primario en la porción norte de la mina Qidong como un ejemplo, con el modelo se predijeron las áreas de entrada de agua que ajustaron adecuadamente a las condiciones observadas validando el modelo usado. Con el mismo modelo se predijeron posibles áreas de irrupción de las vetas de carbón primario no. 61, 82 y 9 en la porción sur de la mina Qidong, lo que ayudará a futuras operaciones mineras.



This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41372244, 41172216, and 41373095) and the Anhui Science and Technology Research Project of China (1501zc04048). The authors also sincerely thank the reviewers for their useful suggestions.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luwang Chen
    • 1
  • Xiaoqing Feng
    • 2
  • Dongqing Xu
    • 1
  • Wen Zeng
    • 1
  • Zhiyuan Zheng
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Resources and Environmental EngineeringHefei University of TechnologyHefeiChina
  2. 2.Hebei Research Institute of Construction and Geotechnical Investigation Co., LtdShijiazhuangChina

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