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Redescription of Enneapterygius erythrosoma Shen 1994 and a synopsis of Enneapterygius similis Fricke 1997, with comments on the taxonomic status of Enneapterygius rubicauda Shen 1994 (Perciformes: Tripterygiidae)

Abstract

Enneapterygius erythrosoma Shen 1994 is considered a valid species, being redescribed on the basis of 87 specimens (33 males and 54 females in total, 14.2–32.3 mm in standard length), including the type specimens. Previously regarded as a junior synonym of Enneapterygius rubicauda Shen 1994 by previous studies, E. erythrosoma differs distinctly from the former in having 16–19 (modally 17) pored lateral-line scales (vs. 15 in the holotype of E. rubicauda), the mandibular-pore formula usually 4 + 1 + 4 (vs. 3 + 1 + 3), two or three reddish-brown blotches on the pectoral-fin base in females and pale males (vs. pectoral-fin base without blotches), a narrow yellowish-white vertical band on the middle of the caudal peduncle, forming a broad greenish- or yellowish-red (same as body ground color) band just before the caudal-fin base (vs. narrow oblique white band, forming brownish-red trapezoid marking). Enneapterygius rubicauda was regarded as a junior synonym of Enneapterygius flavoccipitis Shen 1994, following the first reviser. Although E. erythrosoma is most similar to Enneapterygius similis Fricke 1997 in sharing the above-mentioned characters, it differs from the latter as follows: 12–14 (modally 13) second dorsal-fin spines [vs. 10–13 (12) in E. similis]; medial supratemporal canal not deeply indented (vs. deeply indented, forming two broad branches); 1st spine of first dorsal fin in nuptial males relatively long, 32.7–47.7% (mean 39.4%) of head length [vs. short, 28.2–39.0% (32.1%) of head length]; reddish pigmentation posteriorly on body relatively distinct in females and pale males (vs. distinct greenish or yellowish pigmentation); anteriormost blotch on pectoral-fin base in pale males and females relatively large, maximum width 26.6–56.7% (mean 38.1%) of orbit diameter [vs. small, 15.5–33.3% (19.5%) of orbit diameter]. In addition, nuptial male coloration of E. erythrosoma, described for the first time, differs distinctly from all other members of Enneapterygius, the former having a uniformly black body, and black third dorsal, anal, and caudal fins (sometimes pale grayish-black).

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Acknowledgements

We are especially grateful to S. Harazaki (Yakushima Diving Service Mori-to-Umi) for providing underwater photographs. We thank K.-Y. Wu (NTUM), H. Kawase and T. Noichi (CMNH), H. Senou and H. Wada (KPM), and G. Shinohara and M. Nakae (NSMT) for opportunities to examine specimens, M. Meguro and S. Tashiro (formerly KAUM) for sharing type specimen data, K. Fujiwara (NSMT) for valuable comments on an early draft, volunteers and students of KAUM for curatorial assistance, G. Hardy (Ngunguru, New Zealand) for reading the manuscript and providing help with English, and N. Muto (section editor of Ichthyological Research) for providing valuable comments. This study was supported in part by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 20H03311 and 21H03651; the JSPS Core-to-core CREPSUM JPJSCCB20200009; and the “Establishment of Glocal Research and Education Network in the Amami Islands” project of Kagoshima University adopted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

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Correspondence to Yuna Dewa.

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Dewa, Y., Motomura, H. Redescription of Enneapterygius erythrosoma Shen 1994 and a synopsis of Enneapterygius similis Fricke 1997, with comments on the taxonomic status of Enneapterygius rubicauda Shen 1994 (Perciformes: Tripterygiidae). Ichthyol Res (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10228-022-00871-4

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10228-022-00871-4

Keywords

  • Synonymy
  • Distribution
  • Enneapterygius flavoccipitis
  • Enneapterygius leucopunctatus
  • Enneapterygius macrobrachium